Book Gems

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BIOGRAPHY OF IBN TAYMIYYA (Arabic)

AUTHOR: Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani

  • Ibn Hajar said: “… his status is more apparent than the sun and his title of Sheikul-Islam in his age remains upon people’s tongues tomorrow as it was yesterday and nobody denies that except a jahil or one who is away from balance.”
  • Az-Zahabi said: “He had the haqq of ijtihad.”
  • “If I took an oath between the rukn and the maqam that my eyes never saw anyone like him and nor did he see anyone like himself…”

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FOUR PRINCIPLES OF MUHAMMED IBN ABDUL WAHAAB (Arabic)

  • Begins with a du’aa for the reader.
  • Ingredients for happiness: [1] when given something you are thankful, [2] when placed under trials, you are patient, [3] when you sin you seek forgiveness.
  • Ibadah can not be called “ibadah” unless it has with it tawheed just like salaah cannot be called “salaah” without taharah (purification).
  • Principle one: The disbelievers who the Messenger (peace be upon him) fought acknowledged that Allah was their creator, but this did not enter them into Islam. {Verse 31: Surah Yunus}
  • Principle two: They said that they do not turn to these objects except to get closer to Allah and to get intercession. {Verse 3: Surah Az-Zumar; Verse 18: Surah Yunus}
  • Principle three: The Messenger (peace be upon him) came to people who worshipped different objects. Some worshipped prophets, the pious, trees, stones, the sun, moon, etc. and he invited and fought jihaad against them all and did not differentiate between them.
  • Principle four: Mushriks today are worse than the ones of old as the ones of the past worshipped Allah at times of dire need. However, today’s mushriks worship other objects at all times. {Verse 65: Surah Al-Ankaboot}

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MALFOOZAT (1) (English)

By Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi

  • Love of fame and wealth are grave spiritual evils.
  • Presentation of ones needs to others is disgraceful.
  • If it is permissible to verbally express the statement then it will be permissible to publish/print them.If verbal expression is not permissible then publishing/printing of such material will not be permissible.
  • Moulana Khalil Ahmed said: “We are in need, but we are not sellers of the deen.”
  • The book Hayatul Muslimeen took a lot of strain to write and I value this act.
  • A certain moulana wrote to me saying that so and so is a prominent businessman, so pay attention to him. I wrote back saying, “You want to impress me with the business and prominence of a man,” “you attempt to dangle a bait in front of me.”
  • I wrote to a certain madrassah saying that if you participate in the melaad I shall severe my ties with you.
  • Acquisition of material wealth in worldly garb is not as harmful as the acquisition of worldly gain under the guise of the deen.
  • If rational proofs are to be totally discarded in religious matters, then everyone will be able to claim the truth of his religion on the basis of only faith.
  • In places, a person who prohibits customs and acts which is in conflict with the sharee’ah, is often branded as a “Wahaabi”.
  • Nowadays the authorities of religious institutions regard their contributors as gods.
  • Advise to the gambler: impose upon yourself one hundred rakaats of nafl salaah.
  • My biography should not be written as people tend to exaggerate.
  • When making du’aa at the graveside, do not lift your hands. Lifting hands may convey the impression that one is making du’aa to the dead.
  • Democracy is not equal to Shura.
  • I pity the wealthy always engulfed in worries.
  • If the physician submits to the whims of the sick, the sick will derive no benefit. The same with the scholar and the masses.

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Madrasah Life: A Student’s Day At Nadwat Al-Ulama [English]

By Mohammed Akram Nadwi

  • However motivated they are, students remain students- reluctant to get up in the morning, argumentative, bored with grammar, teasing one another over sporting rivalries, concerned that standards are slipping yet skimming assigned readings. The milieu is more cultured, though, than the typical Western school or college.
  • Nadwatul Ulama based in Lucknow, is the product of a particular revivalist strand that dates back to the late nineteenth century and, in its self-presentation, was broadly inspired by the eighteenth century Indian thinker, Shah Waliullah (1703-1762 CE). Its proponents, including the modernist Muhammad Ali Mangeri (1846- 1944) and the pan-Islamist Shibli Numani (1857-1914)
  • When a community has lost its grip on power, and its former prestige and glory slip away from it, the memory of its contribution to culture and civilization weakens until that contribution is questioned, then doubted, then denied, even those of its virtues that still survive are presented in a negative light, made the object of suspicion and ridicule
  • They came out of the school of Shaykh al-Islam Shah Waliullah Dihlawi and his disciples. The guides and leaders of this earnest group of men were Mawlana Muhammad Ali Mungeri, Mawlana Shibli Nu’mani and Mawlana ‘Abd al-Hayy Hasani
  • In brief, Dar al-Ulum has tried to produce intellectually broad-minded scholars able to connect with the wider world, and therefore to represent and extend Islam, to expound the eternal nature of the Divine Message and the distinguishing features of the Shariah and its way in such language as might appeal to the modern mind, and so help to bring about a confluence between the traditional and the modern
  • I asked him (Ml Muhibullah Lari)  why he preferred to stay there, rather than with his family and children. He said that he would not find the academic, religious and spiritual atmosphere that he found in Nadwah anywhere else, nor could he join so large a congregation for prayer
  • جمالك في عيني وحبك في قلبي

وذكرك في فمي فأين تغيب

Your beauty in my eye, your love in my heart

Your mention on my lips- where then could you disappear?

  • After wudu’ I recited Surat al-Zumar. Its recitation in the early morning fills my heart with joy. Words fail me in describing the delight I have. I am aware of the tremendous impact of the Qur’an on the world, how it marks a new dawn in history. It is a pity that some of its custodians are ignorant of its abiding value and power
  • Nor is there any need to seek anyone’s intercession of the Messenger of God, may God bless Him and grant him peace who it is promised will intercede for the wrongdoers of his community. But it is Allah Who forgives
  • When the latter arrived, Sufyan had fallen unconscious. When he recovered, Hammad said to him: “If on the day of Judgement God gives me the choice between Him or my mother taking my account, I will opt for God. For His mercy exceeds even a mother’s love
  • At the time of the fajr prayer, Nadwah mosque is filled with such illuminated tranquility that pure and profound thoughts envelop the mind. In that state I was almost transported to a different world. The mosque is not a mere structure of mortar and cement. The mosque orients the individual to the proper direction
  • Now I can understand why our righteous ancestors did not like to talk to anyone after the dawn prayer until after sunrise. How much the world is in need of such a spiritual environment. Even angels are likely to envy someone whose light is illuminated with such a spiritual light
  • Babar informed us in detail about the teachers and teaching method at the International Islamic University of Madinah. According to him, Mawlana Sa’id Ahmad Khan’s presence was a source of strength for Indian students in Madinah
  • On his [Said Ahmed Khan] return to Madinah after doing ‘umrah, he had to camp in the wild; in accordance with a reported hadith, he drew a line in the ground around himself and his fellow travellers, then recited a supplication seeking God’s protection against all evil. The next morning they found snakes and scorpions crawling near their camp, just outside the line he had drawn
  • Generally, students rest content with Usul al-shashi and al-Husami, complacent that they have attained sufficient knowledge of the principles of fiqh. Yet these two works are only introductory works, familiarizing students only with basic principles. After studying these, they must study Usul al-sarakhsi, Usul al-bazdawi, al-Shafi’s al-Risalah, al-Amidi’s al-Ihkam, al-Shatibi’s al-Muwafaqat and the writings of Ibn Hazm carefully and in depth
  • Students read, at most, al-Mirqat and al-Sullam. Few among them can boast of having studied Ibn Sina’s al-Shifa and Imam Ibn Taimiyyah’s al-Radd ‘ala al-mantiqiyyin. There is a general trend of decline in the standard of learning. Study of grammar is, in particular, neglected. It is widely perceived as a dry, difficult subject. Students must, at least, read the works of Jahiz and Ibn Jinni
  • They neither had a feeling for the occasion, nor did they look at the beautiful morning scenery. What is the point of going on a walk on the bank of the Gomti, if one overlooks natural beauty altogether?
  • One can do well with without grammar and one can master Arabic language in other ways. Mawlana Muhammad al-Hasani stands out as living proof of that. The hallmarks of his style are missing from those writers who learnt Arabic through grammar. His al-Islam al-mumtahan, apart from being a  perceptive analysis of Islamic thought, is a literary masterpiece
  • For him, “they are akin to scientists who conduct a thorough study of nature, analyse even the smallest object in order to ascertain truth, yet are not enchanted by the beauty and grandeur of nature. Even while studying a rose they only focus microscopically on its constituent parts. If they see a beautiful and attractive face they are unmoved by its beauty. Rather, their interest lies in its skeleton
  • Ridwan had taken a specialist courses on tafsir and Qur’anic studies at Madinah University. He earned his degree this year and had been appointed as a teacher of tafsir at Nadwah. For days he had been asking me to have a discussion with him on Mawlana Hamid al-Din Farahi’s concept of Nizam al-qur’an… the order, coherence and contextual harmony of the Qur’an
  • Farahi’s thesis is that every Qur’anic chapter is thematically related to the chapters immediately preceding and following it. The same holds true, according to him, for the verses, which are interrelated with one another. The fact that the compilation of surahs (chapters) in the Qur’an, under the guidance of the Prophet, peace be upon him, was different from the order in which they were revealed to him is testimony to this very coherence..
  • The Prophet, peace be upon him, was commanded by Allahto marry Zaynab. However, people reproached him for marrying his ‘daughter-in-law’. Since in the Qur’an God intended to end the above practice regarding adopted children. He clarified that the Prophet is not the father of any man..One could also ask why  such a great Messenger had to do this. Other prophets coming after him could have accomplished this. In reply the Qur’an declares that no prophet will ever follow him, for he, peace be upon him, is the seal of the Prophets. It was therefore his duty to end this custom
  • Ibn Hazm’s arguments are not so weighty in my opinion. What impresses me more is the degree of intellectual freedom enjoyed by scholars when Islam was in its heyday
  • …we should live as brothers. To me, Nadwah curriculum conveys the same message and seeks to restore this past glory. Notwithstanding our adherence to principles, we should have enough breadth of mind to accomadate differences of opinion. We should not let peripheral differences in interpretation drag us into sectarianism and parochialism
  • an important feature of Nadwah curriculum is to foster in students a critical faculty for debate and research and to train them to write cogent, effectively argued pieces on scholarly topics. As part of this training, every student of ‘alimiyyah and fadilah writes a dissertation in his final year. Without this, he cannot receive his degree
  • I went to the office of al-Ba’th al-Islami to submit another instalment of my translation of Bustan al-Muhaddithin… This valuable work, introducing the major hadith collections was written in Persian by Shah ‘Abd al-Aziz Muhaddith Dihlawi. At the suggestion of my esteemed teacher, Mawlana Sayyid Salman Husayni, I was translating it into Arabic, my efforts being serialized in the periodical al-Ba’th al-Islami…
  • Shah Waliullah Ahmad ibn ‘Abd al-Rahim al- Umari al-Dihlawi (d. 1176 A.H) authored more than fifty books, and left a large number of students and disciples who continued his mission after his death. All the major Indian madrasahs stand indebted to him
  • According to Shah Waliullah, there are two types of hadith. Hadith on the Hereafter and the wonders of the unseen creation are based wholly on divine revelation. As to the hadith on legislation, these represent both the revelation and ijtihad. The second category of hadith, for example, those on medicine are not linked to the Prophetic mission. These are rooted in experience, and are not derived from revelation
  • Aisha states that the Prophets, peace be upon him, told her: I am to you as Abu Zar was to Umm Zar. She asked: ‘May my parents be sacrificed for you. Who was Abu Zar? It was then that he related the whole account. Some others have also classified this hadith as marfu. Therefore Shah Waliullah was correct to mention this hadith as an illustration of the general point
  • Dr Ahmad Amin’s reservations about certain authentic hadith, mainly proceed from his ignorance of this classification like his objection to Umm Zar’s report that the gathering of eleven women and their discussion about their respective husbands is not plausible. To him, it is an example of a fabricated hadith. Had Ahmad Amin been familiar with Shah Waliullah’s classification of hadith, he would have realized that the reference was to a report that was popular in Arabia and that the Prophet, peace be upon him, had related it is in the same sense
  • Josh’s book strikingly flouts all religious and moral codes. Brazenly he claims that the Qur’an, God forbid, is not divine revelation. He has hurled abuses at the Prophet’s Companions. In recounting his love affairs, he has revealed in full the dark side of his character…he takes Freud’s theories about the sexual urges and their gratification literally
  • Mawlana Muhammad Ja’far’s Kala pani (Exile) is the first autobiography in Urdu. Mawlana Abu al-Hasan Ali Nadwi recommended its study to us. At Nadwah the following Arabic autographies were acclaimed: Ahmad Amin’s Hayati and Taha Husayn’s al-Ayyam. The former was, at one point, part of the syllabus for aliyah thaniyah. Students were examined in it. Its study enabled them to familiarize themselves with everyday Arabic
  • According to al-Tahawi, a difference in interpreting a hadith should not be taken to mean any opposition to the hadith itself. Opposition to a particular interpretation of a hadith is different from opposition to the hadith itself. One who differs in interpretation should not be accused of contradicting the hadith
  • The imams and leading jurists interpret the hadith in the sense that the buyer and seller have a choice as long as they do not differ in their wordings. This interpretation, however, so incensed Imam Ibn Dhi’b that he declared that the Imam (Malik) was fit for capital punishment…
  •  According to Mawlana Shahbaz’s interpretation, two adhans for Friday prayer was the practice during the Prophet’s day. The first one corresponded with the Quranic command. Caliph ‘Uthman had introduced the third one to meet a pressing need.  It was not a permanent feature. The population of Madinah was increasing and hence this adhan was made at another locality, namely al-Zawra in Madinah…
  • Mawlana Salman had recently graduated from Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University. His induction had enlivened the academic activities at the faculty; he set up an independent faculty library and organized academic contests for students, prompting them to pursue research
  • Mawlana Arif teaches tafsir. His elucidation of monotheism is remarkable, while his association with Mawlana Manzur Nu’mani had alerted him fully to the dangers posed by those sects that prefer innovation in the religion over the sunnah
  • Mawlana Sayyid Abdullah Hasani came from an illustrious family, standing out for his nobility, generosity, devotion to Islam and commitment to the cause of promoting the Sunnah. He was very attached to tasawwuf yet adhered to shariah norms in his pursuit. His interest does not therefore amount to transgression. His tasawwuf is under the command of his knowledge and his knowledge is subservient to his tasawwuf
  • Mawlana Abd al-Nur had graduated from Jami al-Azhar. We studied psychology and aesthetics with him
  • I listened to Ishaq Husayni’s review of Sayyid Qutb’s work, which deals with features of his style and his flair for depicting the Qur’anic presentation of things. Few could match him in offering such an effective summary of Qutb’s work, yet I doubted whether he had read his work in full. Ishaq had replied: “Is there a single reviewer who reads the whole book for his review? It is standard practice to skim and scan. I am not to be criticized for following the standard practice. I was nonetheless amazed at how Ishaq managed to review the book so well, even though he had not read it all
  • Mawlana Abu al-Irfan Nadwi, was a disciple of the leading Islamic historian of India, Sayyid Sulayman Nadwi. Mawlana Abu al-Irfan is the Urdu translator of a significant work on history, Mawlana Sayyid Abd al-Hayy Hasani’s al-Thaqafah al-Islamiyyah fi al-Hind
  • Itizal is another major flaw in al-Zamakhshari’s work. His tafsir is marred by his constant defence of the opinions of Ahl al-adl wa al-tawhid (i.e Mutazilites) and his strong attacks on the orthodox Muslim viewpoint. Imam Ibn Taimiyyah points to this flaw and cautions readers against it, and highlights this weakness in his work
  • The Mawlana then presented a survey of the impact of al-Kashshaf at various stages of Islamic history and in different parts of the Muslim world. Ibn Taimiyyah’s criticism of al-Zamakhshari is very strong, yet he too appears to fall under the latter’s influence in his writings on the Qur’an. In the Indian subcontinent al-Kashshaf has enjoyed great popularity
  • Abd al-Mubin related that while he was studying in a madrasah in Mau, while explaining the issue of raising hands during prayer, as is recorded by al-Bukhari, the teacher forcefully dismissed the Hanafi stance on the issue, saying that seventy Companions had narrated it
  •  In the past it was customary to use as few words in a fatwa as possible. But this is not the right way. Rather, arguments drawn from the Qur’an, sunnah and common sense should be presented in order to convince those seeking a ruling, as it will increase their knowledge. Look at the Qur’an: how many considerations it covers when answering the questions! Hadith literature abounds in such instances. A curt reply is of little use. Similarly, the relevant hadith should be quoted in full, specifying the chapter and section of the source book. If it is not in a standard collection like Muwatta or the sound books of Imams al-Bukhari and Muslim, then the authority on which it is cited should be stated, along with some comment on the authenticity of the hadith
  • Usually Mawlana Sadr Yar Jang Habib al-Rahman Khan Sherwani’s Ulama-i Salaf is read after asr salat, as it infuses in the audience a quest for knowledge, commitment to scholarship, and a desire to stand in prayer in night. Occasionally Shaykh Sharaf al-Din Maneri’s Maktubat is also read out. Today, Mawlana Abu al-Hasan Ali Nadwi’s Tazkiyah wa-ihsan was being studied…
  • …Eventually Muhyi al-Din Awrangzeb took over as the Mughal ruler. The mind behind this transformation was that of the master, Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi, known famously by his title, ‘the reviver of the second Islamic millennium’.
  • Prominent local people and some teachers and students of Nadwah join this blessed gathering. My interest in playing badminton is so strong that I join this gathering only occasionally…
  • We noticed a growing crowd there. We were lucky to have secured seats because we had arrived early.  We learned that a football match between Nadwis and non-Nadwis was about to begin. The latter team comprised those students who have not yet graduated from Nadwah- it is the better by far and always wins
  • Mawlana Abdullah Abbad Nadwi and Mawlana Abu al-Irfan Nadwi gave a seminar on the issue of education and upbringing. Both of them are well-versed in classical and modern methods of education and theories on upbringing. It is an important topic to be tackled by two leading educationists. However, the time after maghrib is very precious to me because I have allocated it for private study, particularly of classical texts. I didn’t attend, asking for a review of the seminar..
  • … from Abu Hurayrah, which reads as follows: “You belong to an era in which, if you disregard even one-tenth of your religion, you will meet with destruction. However, there will be a time when, if my community acts on only one-tenth of religion, they will attain deliverance.”
  • Lately I have been studying Ibn Sina’s al-Shifa. This 18-volume work is atestament to Ibn Sina’s mastery of the rational sciences. The Greeks had made only a preliminary study of logic, but this discipline was enlarged by al-Farabi and Ibn Sina… Ibn Sina was not a mere imitator of Aristotle. The later scholar has given it another name, which underscores Ibn Sina evolutionary approach to the topic. For him, obviously, jadal “deductive reasoning” is inferior to burhan “proof.” He is of the view that knowledge is obtained through perfect reasoning and certain analogy; and the certain analogy is burhan. Man should therefore seek it first. He also recognizes other modes of analogy and speculation. For him, jadal is essential to organizing society. It is thus clear that burhani logic relates to natural sciences and jadali logic relates to social sciences
  • When Muti al-Rahman saw us eating bareheaded, he was offended and asked us why we did not follow the Sunnah in this matter. Umar Laddakhi replied…he had yet to come across any hadith that recommends that one’s head be covered while eating…He replied that he had always observed members of Tablighi Jamaat at doing so and they do not act against the Sunnah. The Mawlana then reasoned with him that the practice of any individual or a group is not an argument. One should substantiate his action with the Sunnah.This reminded me of the incident involoving Ibn Abd al-Hakam, who says: “I met Abd-al Malik ibn al-Majishun in Madinah and sought his ruling on a matter, which he duly issued. When I asked him to substantiate it, he referred to Imam Malik’s practice. I was surprised and said to him: ‘I ask you to present evidence, and you are presenting the opinion of your teacher. You and your teacher both need to cite evidence and proof”
  • Haydar  had a special inclination towards fiqh and lamented that some hanafis, when travelling, combine two prayers. I, however, pointed out that a rigid stance should not be taken on this matter, as some hadiths allow this practice and many ‘ulama’ subscribe to it… I drew his attention to the evident flaw in his argument; pilgrims offer combined prayers at Arafat and Muzdalifah. This standard practice underscores that the Qur’anic command is not absolute. Once a Qur’anic verse has been given a specific understanding in certain circumstances, according to hanafi principles of jurisprudence, it can be specified further by a single report or analogy. Hanafis should modify their stance accordingly. They should allow combining prayers during a journey or sickness, as is allowed in the hadiths…The practice at Arafat and Muzdalifah is clear evidence. The second problem is that the issues of travelling are based on ease; if we interpret combination as formal, then it makes the time slots more narrow, in which case the traveller will have more trouble
  • I would generally come back to my hostel immediately after isha prayer for private study. A few days back I have finished studying Iman Ibn al-Qayyim’s I’lam al-muwaqqi’in, and I have now taken up Imam al-Shatibi’s al-Muwafaqat
  • The Mufti was doing the rounds of the Shibli hostel after fajr prayer. He saw a student asleep and woke him up, asking him whether he had done the prayer. He replied he had. On being asked to specify the surah recited in the first rakah, he confidently said that it was Surat al-Fatihah. This left the latter speechless. Khalid added that it was perhaps the only instance in which the Mufti was rendered speechless, for we know that he is invincible in argument…we asked the Mufti permission to go to the circus, but he refused. We argued that since we were going to become ‘alim soon, we should be allowed to visit it in order to gain first-hand knowledge of the evil associated with a circus visit. The Mufti said that one need not taste an impure substance in order to pronounce on its unlawfulness
  • Hakim ‘Abd al-Hayy Hasani’s highest chain of narration is his narration from the spiritual master and imam of the Naqshbandiyya order, Mawlana Fadi-i Rahman Ganj Muradabadi who was the mentor of three of the founding members of Nadwah: Mawlana Muhammad Ali Mungeri, Mawlana ‘Abd al-Hayy Hasani and Nawab Sadr Yar Jung Mawlana Habib al-Rahman Khan Sherwani. This throws light on the genesis of Nadwah itself
  • Shaykh al-Islam Taymiyyah was fully conversant with the Prophetic sciences, and so his thorough knowledge of Greek thought did not influence him in the least; rather, he was able to deal severe blows to Greek philosophy. There was an inherent weakness in Ghazali’s approach. It is not therefore surprising that Tahafut al-tahafut came out in refutation of Ghazali’s Tahafut al-falasifah. By contrast, no one has so far written a rejoinder to Ibn Taymiyyah’s al-Radd ala al-mantiqiyyin. Instead, one familiar with modern logic might assume that new logic has been rephrased and modified in the light of Ibn Taymiyyah’s objections. Today the Muslim community needs another Ibn Taymiyyah. At a very late stage Shibli recognized his genius. On appreciating the Shaykh al-Islam’s greatness, he wrote in his letters that there is a need to bring out a book on his life and achievements. He ranked him higher than al-Razi and al-Ghazali

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Life of Shah Waliyullah [English]

By G.N. Jalbani

  • Some astrologers through calculations based on their observation of the conjunction of the stars, said that the year of his birth was auspicious and his horoscope was at the height of its perfection
  • The two sons of Sheikh ‘Abd-ul Aziz, Maulana Muhammad Ishaq and Maulana Muhammad Ya’qub had left for the Haramain where they spent their life studying and teaching the Tradition
  • His lineage is traced to Hadrat Umar by father’s side and to Hadrat ‘Ali by mother’s side…in the beginning of some of his works he mentions his name as Ahmad b. ‘Abd-ur-Rahim al-Umari
  • At seven years he was prepared for offering prayer five times a day and made ready to keep the fasts of the month of Ramadan. His circumcision also took place in that very year.
  • Writing further he says that when became ten years old he finished Sharh Mulla Jami
  • At the age of fifteen he swore an oath of allegiance (Bai’ah) and engaged himself actively in observing the Sufi practices prescribed by the Naqshbandi Order in particular
  • He had only one son Muhammad from his first wife… but it seems as if he died at a young age and left no issue behind
  • He was blessed with four sons and one daughter named Amat-ul-Aziz from his second wife whom he married after the death of his first wife. Her name was Bi-Iradah and she was the daughter of Sayyid Thana’ullah of the village Sonipat which is a distance of some forty miles to the west of Delhi
  • Shah ‘Abd-ul Aziz was born in 1159/1746 and died at the age of seventy-nine in  1238/1823. He faithfully carried the mission of his father and rendered invaluable service in promoting the cause of Islam. His works are good in number. One of them is his commentary of the first and one-fourth of the second and last two parahs of the Qur’an. Ujjalah-i-nafi’ah, Tuhfah-i-Ithna’ ‘Ashariyah and Bustan-ul-Muhaddithin are some of his works
  • Shah Isma’il Shahid was his son who fell a martyr at Balakot in 1246/1831 in his fight against the Sikhs
  • It was an honour from his father to teach Tafsir Baidawi to others. In this way, the formal ceremony of his Dastarbandi became complete. Under the guidance of his father he finished Sahih Bukhari from beginning up to “Kitab-ut-Taharat.” Similarly he read and studied Shama’il-un-Nabi completely w ith him in the presence of his students. In exegesis he studied a part of Baidawi and a portion of Tafsir Madarak
  • Sheikh ‘Abd-ur-Rahim had distributed his sacred relics by the end of his life. Shah Waliyullah received one of his two hairs of the Holy Prophet, the Sheikh was blessed with. Those two hairs were to survive but now nothing is known of their whereabouts
  • Sheikh ‘Abd-ur-Rahim was the first person who had laid the foundation of the teaching of the Tradition on firm basis in the subcontinent. Madrassah-i-Rahimiyah was established by him worked successfully for a long time. Unfortunately, now no trace of it remains in old Delhi
  • Sheikh ‘Abd-ul-Aziz narrates that one day a person asked his father about the Shi’ahs as to whether they were infidels or not. He in his reply to his question informed him that the Hanafi jurists differ in this matter. The man was not satisfied with that reply and he repeated his question. When his father gave him the same reply, he branded him as a Shi’ah
  • Maulana ‘Abd-ul-Qayyum relates on good authority that Shah Waliyullah, even after his death, was found busy for forty years in the education of his children in the Intermediary World (‘Alam-i-Barzakh)
  • Sheikh Afandi Isma’il b. ‘Abdullah, a famous scholar of Medina, had asked him to throw light on the doctrine of the Unity of Being (Wahdat-ul-Wujud) and the Unity of Appearance (Wahdat-ush-Shuhud)
  • When the students are found fairly strong in the Arabic language, they should be taught Muwatta then study the Holy Qur’an without the help of any commentary. They may be taught Tafsir Jalalain. When they finish this course they should study jurisprudence (‘Aqaid), mysticism and some treatises on the science of the study of books (Danishmandi) and some portion from Mishkat
  • His advice is that people should study the Holy Qur’an and the Tradition on proper lines and act upon them in right earnest. The problems arising out of the bye-laws in jurisprudence (Furuat) may be considered in the light of the two original sources. If they agree with them, they may be accepted, but if they run counter to them, they should be rejected outright. No attention should be paid to such problems as the ancients have avoided to discuss. The opinions of the rationalists should be simply ignored as they unnecessarily create doubt and confusion
  • The result is the whole of his time is spent in solving the difficulties of the commentators themselves. He, thus, gets no time to understand the Holy Qur’an independently. If the Holy Qur’an is read with some attention, many wonderful ideas, hitherto unknown, are suggested. This is the reason Shah Waliyullah used to teach the Holy Qur’an before the Tradition. Through the introduction of this new method, his students gained more from his lessons on the Holy Qur’an than from his teachings of the Tradition
  • While speaking on the Holy Qur’an, he used to stick to its outward meaning and avoided interpretations as far as possible. It was, indeed, the need of the time. He always instructed and helped his students to think over the Word of God independently as it was the only Book which could stand the test all times to come
  • Happiness of both worlds lies in these two words: Kindness to friends and politeness to enemies
  • He was an independent thinker, thus at times he went by the Shafii school eg. raising the hands in prayer as he found the number of Traditions in support of it larger than compared to those against the practice, besides they were more strong and authentic. Where there was a difference, he always followed the Tradition which was more sound and strong from the point of view of evidence (Dalil) and transmission (Isnad), no matter which school it belonged
  • If there appeared a conflict in the Traditions themselves about a certain matter, and the Traditions of both sides in relation to that matter were found equally sound and authentic he exercised scrupulousness (Ihtiyat) eg. In the matter of Zakat of Ornaments, the traditions on both sides were equally strong. Therefore it thought it proper to pay the tax
  • The term ‘Qaim-uz-Zaman’ means that when God desired to establish the best order in the world he selected him for the fulfilment of that desire…in that dream he found an unbelieving ruler who had forcibly taken possession of the Muslim’s cities and looted and plundered them…in Ajmer, he found the signs of Islam erased
  • He began most of his writing work after returning from the Pilgrimage. He breathed his last in 1176/1762 when he was a little over sixty one. Thus he spent about thirty years in writing books
  • He had started translating the Holy Qur’an into the Persian language before his departure for the holy land. Persian was then the official language spoken and understood everywhere. The translation of the Holy Qur’an into that language was considered absolutely necessary
  • It has been conjectured that he may have prepared ‘Iqd-ul-Jid fi Ahkam-il-Ijtihad wat-Taqlid and al-Insaf fi Bayan Sabab-il-Ikhtilaf along with Fath-ur-Rahman. In the former he has shown that all the four schools are correct and reliable
  • Ta’wil –ul-Ahadith meets the requirement of the modern age. He traced in it the history of the Prophets (from Adam to Muhammad) whose names have come in the Holy Qur’an and has shown that the ground has always been prepared before the advent of the Prophets and that there were natural causes behind the important events which had taken place during their days. Brevity and employment of particular terminology are the chief characteristics of his style
  • The important work al-Musawwa’, an Arabic commentary of al-Muwatta…for learned scholars engaged in research it is absolutely essential to consult musawwa
  • The small treatise, al-Juz’-ul-Latif was his biographical account Qurrat-ul-‘Aiman fi Tafdil-ish-Shaikhain seems to have been prepared by him around 1170/1756. Though by nature he was inclined to the superiority of Hadrat Ali, yet in practice he was restrained by the Unseen Power from following that view
  • The conditions of the country when Shah Waliyullah was born were very bad. There was political instability and a state of insecurity, with no peace of mind and no safety of life. Looting, plunder, feuds and fighting had spread everywhere. Disintegration had set in the Mughal Empire and the Muslims were split among themselves. Consequently, they suffered at the hands of the Sikhs, Jats and Marathas
  • No less than ten rulers ascended the throne one after the other during his lifetime. When Muhammad Shah Rangila sat on the throne he was seventeen years old…he was a pleasure-seeker and a great drunkard. On that account he was given the title of Rangila. In spite of that, he had a taste for learning and held the learned in high regard
  • Shah Waliyullah’s madressa, neglected for long, could not, however, stand the passage of time and in the 1857 War of Independence was reduced to ruins, no trace of it is visible
  • In 1152/1739 Delhi was attacked by Nadir Shah…respectable families, in order to save their honour, made up their minds to set themselves to fire (jawhar kardan). Shah Waliyullah restrained them from doing that and reminded them of the behaviour of Imam Husain and his family. Nadir Shah was however interested in loot and plunder. The result of that plunder was that the Muslims suffered the most, the infidels gained added strength, the ruler’s army weakened and Delhi reduced to children’s play. This can be testified from the letters Shah Waliyullah wrote to Ahmad Shah Abdali persuading him to invade India
  • When Shah ‘Alam ascended their throne then conditions deteriorated. The main cause of that disorder and confusion was disunity and mutual rivalries among the ruling clique. Besides, there were other evils of all kinds rampant everywhere
  • Ahmad Shah Abdali made an all-out attack on India in 1174-75/1760-1761. The battle took place in the plains of Panipat. The Marithas, despite their great military might, suffered a crushing defeat. Their losses were terrible and their power was completely broken. They could not rise for some time. This was a golden opportunity for the Muslims to avail of, but against all expectations they remained where they were
  • Religiously: they stuck to blind imitation with the result that they failed to face the hard realities. Hindu Vedantism, the Shi’ite tendencies and the vile innovations had prevailed upon them. The speeches of the preachers were always blended with unsuitable hints of mysticism which led them astray from the right path. The Holy Qur’an was recited simply for blessing and was kept covered with precious cloth. The opinion of the Imam was preferred to the Traditions when the former was found in class with the latter. Serious thinking and independent approach to the law were recklessly ignored, with the result that they fell an easy prey to superstition and innovation.
  • Sufis were hollow, had no knowledge of the Holy Qur’an and the Traditions. Despite that, their views were preferred to the plain words of the law. In the gatherings of the elite and the educated, Sufism, Sufistic poetry and the hints of the Sufis were the pet topics. Consequently they became inactive and lethargic…
  • He translated the Holy Qur’an into the Persian language, as it was the official language spoken and understood everywhere. He took this bold and courageous step at the risk of his life, but did not care for that. An attempt was made on his life because of that but it failed. He was declared an infidel (kafir)- the reason being that translating the Holy Qur’an into another language and understanding it was considered a sin and a violation of its sanctity… his translation was literal, but was clear and easy to understand
  • Shah ‘Abd-ul-Qadir translated the Holy Qur’an into Urdu
  • Shah Waliyullah suggested guidelines in studying the Qur’an. He says that it may be studied without any commentary. If the learner found difficulty in understanding a grammatical construction or the occasion of revelation it may be explained to him and then he may be left alone to think over it and derive the meaning himself. The reason being that the commentary would take away the whole of his time and he will have no occasion to think over the word of God independently
  • In jurisprudence Shah Waliyullah personally disliked the attitude of preferring one school over the other. He treated them all equally and tried to remove the differences wherever found. He strongly recommends the merging together of Shafi’I and Hanafi schools. He has made this matter abundantly clear that all the four schools of thought are right and correct. Their difference in bye-laws is not a matter to be seriously considered in view of their unanimity on principles and many other problems of outstanding importance. The community must maintain its unity and solidarity and should not allow these petty differences to come in that way
  • To live life in this way, in detachment and isolation (as is led by the Sufis), is not the injunction of the Law (Shariah). The Law does not enjoin upon its followers to become Sufis. The speech of the Law-giver is quite clear in this respect and bears no relation whatsoever to the technicalities of the Sufis directly or indirectly (by which they find a justification for the sufistic way of living)
  • Nevertheless he cleared that confusion and placed every word at its proper place and every reality at its suitable site. This was the rich service which he rendered to Sufism. The readers are instructed to see his book Altaf-ul-Quds in this connection
  • Explaining the significance of man’s union with God, he says that in the beginning when God created the Great Body (Shakhs Akbar, Universe) it imagined in the brain the picture of its creator. That drawn picture of God was similar to the picture of the person of God. This drawn and imagined is always present in the brain of the Great Body, and does not disappear from it for a moment. When man reforms both his outward and inward faculties, his connection, by means of the Great Body, gets established with God’s Great Manifeatation (Tajjali A’zam) which is the true reflection of God’s person. It is reflected upon the (Great Body’s) heart and brain continuously. A man is a part of the Great Body, and the part one day will return to its whole and become one with it, then, through that, his connection with the Creator will be established, and this is the meaning of man’s Union with God
  • This is the reason why his grandson Shah Isma’il Shahid reckoned him as the best interpreter in giving the exposition of the realities and gave him preference over Shaikh Akbar Ibn-ul-‘Arabi and Imam Rabbani. His two small treatises Lamahat and Sataat give the desired guidance in that direction
  • Shah Waliyullah was a revolutionary first and then something else
  • It is for this reason that he emphasizes the necessity of the continuation of Jihad, and by Jihad he generally meant revolution (Inqilab). He strongly recommends the retention of the spirit of Jihad for all times to come. So long as this spirit, he says was present in the Muslims, they remained victorious and were honoured everywhere, but no sooner it disappeared from them than they were humiliated and hated wherever they were. He tells that in the existing times, the Muslims should in no way neglect the sacred duty of Jihad, as such neglect in turn amounts to the loss of abundant good
  • Full and adequate preparations for both defence and offence against aggression be made without loss of time. People should be given military training and made acquainted with the modern technique of warfare. They should be armed with the latest and the most destructive weapons of fight available in the world
  • Shah Waliyullah was outspoken and fearless. He always said the right thing whether anyone liked it or not. When he translated the Holy Qur’an in Persian, the narrow-minded people raised a hue and cry against him. About a hundred such persons once assembled in the Fatehpuri mosque of Delhi and encircled him with the intention of harming him. Shah Waliyullah had a small band of followers round him and had ordinary rod in his hand. Crying Allahu Akbar he penetrated through the crowd and came out of the mosque safely
  • The question arises that when the teachings of Shah Waliyullah are replete with infusing the spirit of Jihad into the minds of the Muslims, and are encouraging the Muslims for making preparations for fight and are insisting upon them to retain that spirit aglow for all times, then what was the reason that he himself did not take part in Jihad…He says that if the times required the good of the people through the waging of war, then God would certainly make such an inspiration into the heart of His chosen one …But, he says, God at times completes the mission of the reformation of the people through the pen of His servant
  • In his autobiography of al-Juz’-ul-Latif, he has said that he has been raised for the scientific age and to him are entrusted the reins of the future. It behoves the searchers of truth to study his Hujjatullah-ul-Balighah and estimate the value of the contribution he has made towards the science of religion
  • Imam Rabbani was the reformer of his age. Among the ancients, Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim in particular had risen to the rank of reformers..
  • Nawab Siddiq Hasan Khan, giving his opinion about Shah Waliyullah, says that if he had flourished in the distant past, he would have surely been given the title of Imam and would even have been counted as the chief head of the Imams
  • He was personally inclined to giving preference to Hadrat Ali over other Caliphs, but he was restrained through an inspiration from giving practical shape to that inclination. In consequence, he prepared his work Qurrat-ul-‘Ainain Fi Tafdil-ish-Shaikhain and it was the result of his comprehensive nature that afforded room to the issues in clash
  • When giving lessons in religious matters, he always used to lay emphasis on those points on which there was unanimity among the four schools of thought, particularly among the Shafi and Hanafi schools, as they were comparatively more popular and commanded large a following. This is the reason his followers and admirers are also found to be broadminded and tolerant
  • As he himself was an independent thinker, it was not permissible for him to follow anyone blindly. This is why he was against blind imitation and was not bound to follow any Imam in all his problems. This quality of his was in perfect agreement with the spirit of the Law and was the strong requirement of his sound reason
  • His religious knowledge in particular was up to the required standard. He was well aware of the four schools of the Imams in detail. He knew fully well the problems they have differed in and the causes of their difference as well, and knew also how an agreement could be affected between them. He was of opinion that these seemingly external differences deserve no serious consideration, as after thorough examination they do not stand as real. In his ‘Iqd-ul-Jid he has proved the soundness of all the four schools and in so doing he has certainly brought to an end the consequential (furu’i) problems, namely, the bye-laws
  • Shah Waliyullah has discussed certain problems such as: seeing God on Judgement Day in different forms and shapes, the existence of a (non-material) world in the Universe in which ideas (Ma’ani, meanings) and actions are taking suitable forms, and in that world all the events are appearing first before their appearance in this world of matter, and that world is called the Similitudinary World(‘Alam-i-Mithal)
  • He has cautioned them against emulating the way of life led by rigid ascetics. He practises too much rigidity in the observance of the injunctions of Law, as if there were no facilities provided by the Shariah. He wants to overcome Shariah but will never succeed in that
  • Shah Waliyullah is of the view that even among non-Muslims there are found such persons who, through worship, spiritual exercises and purification of their selves, have been able to reach the Ultimate Reality, but the number of such persons, according to him, is very small
  • While speaking on polytheism he cites a personal example. Once he was shown a group of persons who were prostrating before a poisonous fly. That fly was moving its tail and wings. He was inspired and asked whether he had seen the darkness of polytheism in them and as to whether evil had encompassed them from all sides as it had encompassed the idol-worshippers. He replied that he did not find any such thing in them, because they had taken the fly as a direction for the Reality and not the Reality itself. He was then told that he had understood this secret

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The Ulama of Deoband [English]

Ml Diyaur-Rahman faruqi

  • Those are my forebears. Present someone similar to them!

Even if all our gatherings were to be brought together, O Jarir!

  • Falsehood appeared in the form of Nizamul-Malik and truth appeared in the form of Imam Ghazali. When falsehood appeared in the form of the Fitnahs (mischief) of the Tartars, truth appeared in the form of Ibn Taymiyyah
  • The group which is truly the Ahle-Sunnah Wal-Jama’at and staunchly on the truth is this group of the Ulama of Deoband The name of Nanotwi will echo through all the four corners of the globe as he is the one who has distributed the (spiritual) wine from the divine recognition of Mustafa
  • India and Pakistan were divided in 1947
  • English ruled for about 300 years
  • If a man comes right at the end and claims that he has done all the work without even considering the struggle of the preceding two hundred years, then he is mentally defective
  • In 1601… the Mogul King of that time, Ahmad Shah Abdali was very short-sighted and failed to understand the policies of the English. He provided this trade delegation with a number of concessions. He permitted them to put up a number of huge factories. A number of territories and provinces were handed over to English officers. Upto 12000 acres land were given to each of them with total jurisdiction and authority over that land
  • In 1701, a number of territories were already under British rule. In 1717, the English usurped one of the territories of Mysore and appointed an Englishman as governor over that territory
  • The British came to India in 1601 and Shah Waliyullah was born in 1702. He realized that the British had already seized control of four of the main territories
  • He was the first person in the history of India to deliver a lesson of Hadith. There was no other lesson of Hadith ever delivered before him. He learnt Hadith in Makkah… then returned to India and started teaching Hadith. As a result, all the links of all the various schools of thought in India, be they Deobandi, the Barelwi or the Ahle-Hadith. Are all academically linked to Shah Waliyullah
  • His son wrote a commentary of the Quran in Persian – Tafsir Azizi
  • Shah Abdul Aziz was the first to pass the fatwa of jihad against the British in 1772
  • Haydar Ali, a soldier of the British had a son named Fatah Ali who rose against the British. He was called Tipu Sultan
  • The British bought off Tipu’s chief general Mir Sadiq with 22 000 acres of land
  • Today we don’t even study about Tipu Sultan in Pakistan. The picturesof him show a man without a beard while he never shaved.
  • Husain Ahmed Madani said Tipu was regular with tahajjud
  • After Tipu build the Jami Musjid in Mysore, he announced that only a Sahib Tartib should lead the salah. The ulama were hesitant then he stepped forward and said that he has never missed his five daily prayers since puberty. Today the enemy name their dogs after him.
  • He said The life of one day of a lion is far better than a life of 100 years of a jackal & was martyred in 1792
  • Due to the fatwa of Shah Abdul Aziz, the various freedom movements got off the ground
  • In the history of India you had two groups, traitors of the British and loyalists o the British. Ulama of Deoband were hostile to the British.
  • How did sectarianism come about in India? Who initiated the movement of Gulam Qadiani? Who called Ataullah Bukhari a traitor? Who called Husain Ahmed a kafir? And today, who is initiating the fitna of takfeer? Who is referring to the Imams of the Haram as kafirs?
  • In India we have two big cities, one Ray Bareli and one Ulta Bans Bareli. Sayyid Ahmed Shahid was from Ray Bareli and the history of the other Bareli you are well aquainted with.
  • When Shah Ismail Shahid took over Peshawar a ban on liquor was imposed
  • Shah Ismail was no ordinary man, besides his grandfather Shah Waliyullah, this subcontinent has not produced a greater wali and pir than him. 350 000 kuffar became muslim after readin his students book Taqwiyatul Iman
  • There are some people here who issue fatwas of kur on Sayid Ahmed Shahid and Shah Ismail Shahid. A person should think before he speaks, but it seems the substance of thinking is depleted.
  • They both were killed in the battle of Balakot against the Sikhs
  • Study the books of Shah Ismail Shahid, read Mansabe Imamat. Study Taqwiyatul Iman and your iman will be reinvigorated and an aversion to Bidah and Shirk will be gained
  • Foundation for the war of Independence (1857) was laid by Maulana Nanotwi and the foundation for thewar of “Red Shawls” was laid by Maulana Mahmud al Hasan
  • British hanged 14 000 Ulama between 1864 – 1867
  • Ml Yahya Ali’s beard was shaved off
  • Some were exiled to the Andaman Islands
  • Maulana Thaneseri who survived the battle of Balakot against the Sikhs, while been sent off to exile said to his family that do not grive, if I return its all well or we will meet at the Hawd of Kauthar
  • Shah Waliyullah’s  Madrassah Rahimiyah was bulldozed
  • In 1866 Ml Nanotwi laid the foundations of Darul ulum Deoband
  • It was established to resist the English
  • Ml Mamluk Ali had 2 students, Ml Nanotwi and Sir Sayyid Ahmed. One established Deoband and one Aligarh.
  • Today people say ml Nanotwi was rude to the Messenger (saw), I believe he was brimming with love for the Messenger (saw).
  • Some people are critical of Ml Rashid Ahmed Gangohi, a man who taught hadith for 40 years
  • Ml Husain Ahmed taught hadith in Madinah for 18 yrs and use to clean the rawdah with the hair of his beard
  • The first Ustad appointed in Deoband was Mahmud al Hasan, known as Sheikhul Hind
  • Ml Ashraf Ali, Mufti Kifayatullah, Ml Ilyas, Ml Shabir Ahmed Uthmani  were among his students
  • Ml Anwar Shah Kashmiri was the student on Mufti Kifayatullah – Today the Saudi Government has printed Ml Anwar’s commentary of Bukhari
  •      Mahmud al Hasan was exiled to Malta and severely tortured. He would say that he is the heir of Bilal and even if his skin would be peeled off, he would not issue a fatwa in favour of the British
  • People say Deoband was opposed to the formation of Pakistan, but had Ml Shabir Ahmed Uthmani not supported Ali Jinnah, Pakistan would not have been formed.
  • Ml Shabir Ahmed performed the janazah salah over Ali Jinnah
  • Some Ulama were for partition and some against
  • Ml Madani spent 4 year exiled in Malta

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Unity of the Ummah [English]

By Mufti Muhammad Shafi Sahib (may Allah have mercy on him)

  • Every organization of ours creates divisions, an illness causing the retrogression of the Ummah despite its numerical superiority. Every nation wants us to be dissolved among them. Every nation wants to make incursions into every facet of the life of Muslims, from beliefs to conduct and from culture and social life to commercial dealings and economics
  • Differences in ideological issues are neither harmful nor is there a need to efface them. They cannot be effaced in any case. Differences of opinion do not contradict Islamic unity nor are they harmful for anyone. Having differences of opinion is a natural occurrence from which no group of humans has remained free of nor can they remain free of it
  • Only in two situations can there be a completely united opinion in any group or work. One is that there is no person who can ponder over the matter and adopt a position. In such a gathering, one person says something and all the others agree because they have no opinion or insight. The second situation is where the people are treacherous and sell themselves out. In spite of knowing that a certain position has been adopted and it will be harmful, they do not express their difference of opinion merely to please others
  • Differences of opinion can never be harmful for any nation or group if it remains within limits. It creates many beneficial consequences. This is the reason for emphasizing and honouring consultation in Islam so that different views can come to the fore. The decision can then be made with much greater insight
  • There was no incident where one group called another, transgressors or misguided or prohibited others from following a particular group. There was no such incident where a person would walk into the masjid and ask the worshippers what school of thought the Imam followed with regard to Surah Fatihah and raising of the hands etc. There was no question of fighting one another due to these differences, nor any disputes, abusive language, mocking and denigrating anyone in that noble era
  • One would issue a fatwa of permissibility while another would issue the verdict of non-permissibility. However, the one who issued the verdict of non-permissibility did not regard his adversary as misguided and destroyed nor vice versa
  • Toleration and respecting the view of others is only permissible in those aspects where there is no explicit order in the Qur’an and Sunnah or they are mentioned but are not clear-cut. Without any explanation or clarification it is not permissible to practice them. In an apparent contradiction between two verses or narrations the mujtahid has to ponder over the text of the Qur’an and Sunnah and endeavor to find out what the aim of Shari’ah is and what laws can be derived from it
  • One day I saw Moulana Sayyid Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri rahmatullahi alayhi holding his head in grief. I asked what the matter was. He regretted wasting his life. I commented, “Hadrat, your entire life has been spent in the service of knowledge and in the propagation of Din. Thousands of your students are Ulama. They are famous and have benefitted from you. They are all serving Din.. He replied: The summary of all our endeavours, our life and our lectures was that the Hanafi school of thought is superior to others. We searched for the proofs of the masail of Imam Abu Hanifah rahmatullahi alaih and proved them to be stronger than the other Imams. Now I am pondering and wondering in what I have wasted my life. Was Imam Abu Hanifah rahmatullahi alaih in need of our giving preference to him? Did we have to do him a favour? The people have acknowledged the position which Allah Azza wa Jal had given him. He is not in need of us
  • What is the result of the preference we are giving over Imam Shaafi, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal and the jurists of other schools?

It is nothing more than saying that our school of thought is correct with the possibility of error while other schools of thought are incorrect with the possibility of being correct. There is no other result besides this in our research.
On the day of resurrection, we will not be informed of the secret of who was correct and who was wrong. There can be no decision in masail of ijtihad in the world. After all our research, the most we can conclude is that this school is correct and that one is also correct. Or we can say that this school is correct but there is the possibility that it is incorrect and that one is wrong with the possibility that it is correct. This is what will happen in the world. As for the grave, even the angels Munkar and Nakir will not ask whether raising the hands in salah is correct. Aamin uttered softly or audibly. There will be no question regarding these issues in the life of the Barzakh as well as in the grave.
These were the words of Hadrat Shah Sahib rahmatullah alayhi.
Allah will neither disgrace Abu Hanifa, nor Shafi, neither Malik, nor Ahmed ibn Hanbal rahmatullahi alayhim. Allah will not disgrace those to whom He has given the knowledge of His Din and to whom a great portion of His creation has been attached. They spread the light of guidance everywhere. They spent their lives in spreading the light of the sunnah. He will not make them stand on the day of iyamah and ask them whether Abu Hanifa rahmatullah alayh was correct or Shafi rahmatullah alayhi was wrong or vice versa.

We went after something that we did not need to bleach in this world, in the barzakh nor the hereafter and thus wasted our lives. We used our energy for it instead of using it for the correct propagation of Islam which is unanimously accepted by everyone

Today we are not inviting towards the important aspects of Din which the Ambiya alayhimussalam brought. We have been commanded to propagate these aspects and make them widespread. We have been ordered to efface wrong and evil. These essentials of Din are blurred from the eyes of people. They are being distorted by us and by others. Those evils which we are supposed to combat are spreading all over. Misguidance and irreligiousness are spreading all over. Polytheism and idol-worship are taking root. The differentiation between halal and haram is disappearing but we are engrossed in these subsidiary issues. I am sitting aggrieved and feeling as if I have wasted my life

  • Imam Abu Hanifa said From the conflicting views one is wrong but the sin of the error has been forgiven
  • Imam Malik said Disputing and arguing regarding knowledge removes the light of knowledge from the heart of man. Someone asked, “If a person has knowledge of the Sunnah, can he dispute in order to protect the Sunnah?” He replied in the negative and said, “He should inform him of the correct view. If he accepts, well and good, otherwise remain silent. Refrain from disputes
  • Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam Malik rahihumallah are of the opinion that if the Sahaba had mutual differences, the jurists of the later eras should ponder over the details and adopt the view that was closest to the Sunnah. Imam Ahmad rahimahullah on the other hand was of the view that there was no need for even this. If there were Sahabah on both sides, one should adopt either of the two views
  • In ijtihadi masail, no one has the right to regard his view as being completely correct and the view of others as being wrong. After making ijtihad and pondering, one can only say regarding one’s own view that it is correct but there is the possibility of it being wrong and it is also possible that the other person’s view is correct
  • Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri rahimahullah once stated that the general scholars are engrossed in finding out whose ijtihad is correct and whose is incorrect in ijtihadi masail and they spend most of their energy in this regard. He felt that the result of such ijtihad being correct or incorrect, will not even be announced in the field of reckoning, let alone the world. This is due to the fact that Allah has rewarded a mujtahid one reward even If he is incorrect. His incorrect ijtihad has thus been veiled
  • Imam Shamsud-Din Dhahabi rahimahullah said that the differences of the Sahaba and the Tabi’in can never be erased till the Day of Qiyamah.
  • These are the principles inviting towards virtue in which the first step is using wisdom and tact, then advice and sympathy and a gentle manner that is palatable to the listener. Finally one has to provide proof in the best possible manner and create an understanding
  • Regrettably today, the people of knowledge have discarded these principles. They are only involved in disputes and that too, without any conditions. They use all kinds of means, whether the means are permissible or not. They indulge in lies and fabrications and mock their adversaries in order to defeat them. The result is that the dispute becomes very heated but there is no beneficial result for the people
  • Reasons for disunity: Exceeding limits & regarding those with different views as misguided and deviated.
  • If one has to examine the saintly group of our society, the Ulama and Fuqaha (Jurists) one will find that most of their energies are spent in subsidiary masail
  • The Muslims of today who take the name of Islam and the Qur’an are drowned in all kinds of crimes and evil conduct. Our shopping centres are filled with falsehood, deceit, interest and gambling. Yet no Jew or Hindu is running our businesses. They are all run by those who call themselves Muslims. Our governmental offices are the training grounds of bribery, oppression, theft, cruelty and hard-heartedness. The employees there are not Englishmen or Hindus. They are the ones who take the name of Muhammad (peace be upon him) and who claim to believe in the Hereafter
  • Is this what Rasulullah requires of the people of knowledge? If we were asked by the Messenger (saw) where we, the claimants to inheritors of the prophets were when the Shariah was being attacked and the Ummah was in a deplorable state, will our answer be that we wrote a book of rafa’ yadain (raising the hands in salah), or we explained very clearly the chapter of hasil mahsul to the students of Sharh Jami, or we delivered very interesting lectures on the ijtihadi issues mentioned in the hadith or we used our journalistic capabilities and thoroughly disgraced other ulama?
  • Another error in these ijtihadi masail is to go beyond the limits of differences and begin disputing, quarrelling, fighting and mocking one another which is not permissible in any religion. Regrettably, this is all done in the name of serving religion. When this matter reaches the masses who follow the Ulama, they fight regarding it as a jihad. It is obvious that if a nation fights with itself, where will it have the opportunity to protect its own assets and combat apostasy and disbelief.
  • Such division which leads to enmity and fighting can never be due to the sake of Din. The cause of this enmity can only be the world, love for wealth and love for position. The nafs (carnal self) and shaytan beautify these acts by labelling them as acts for the service of Din
  • Division has been created among the groups. After a critical examination, it seems as if the cause is that each group has chosen its own field to work in although everyone’s aim is the same, namely to propagate and protect Din and to reform the educational, practical and social life of the Muslims. Some people have established a Darul Ulum for teaching Din, some a jama’at for tabligh to guide people, some an organization for Islamic literature…
  • However, practical extremism is found in almost every group whereby they have given their system divine status. Whoever does not participate in their system of operation is not regarded as a brother or partner
  • The method of propagation of the Messengers of Allah Azza wa Jal is that after listening to the harshest of speech of their antagonists, they reply in a simple, soft and gentle manner. They do not indulge in passing sarcastic remarks. Their hearts are full of human sympathy having the desire that the person being addressed should somehow accept the message.
  • The Messengers have been termed as ‘basheer’ and ‘nadheer’… A thief, enemy or predator cannot be termed as ‘nadheer’. The second category, where a kind father warns with sympathy and compassion from harmful or hurtful things, is termed as ‘nadheer’. The Ambiya alaymusalam have been called ‘nadheer’ to indicate the spirit of their propagation and education. They do not merely convey a message
  • From the etiquette of inviting towards Allah, is wisdom. The inviter must not merely convey the message to the people, but he should use wisdom and tact, in a suitable time and in an appropriate environment to convey the message in such a manner that is easy for the listener
  • Sayyid Ismail Shahid rahimahullah ended delivering a lecture in the Jami’ Musjid of Delhi and was going out when some gangsters stopped him. They said, “ We heard you are a bastard.” Moulana replied with complete composure, “You have received the wrong information. The witnesses of my mother’s nikah are still alive today”
  • Today none of our propagators or reformers are greater than Musa and Harun alayhimasalam and their subjects are not misguided than Fir’oun. How has it become permissible for them to dispute with someone who has an opposing view to theirs? How can they begin mocking them and then feel pleased with themselves that they have done a great service to Din? They furthermore harbor hopes that the people will accept their endeavours
  • Every gathering produces division, every organization results in disagreement, the result of every reformation is discord and the consequence of every propagation is hatred. Would that we pondered about our own reformation before others. This is the actual disease. Our hearts are not bereft of the love of wealth, position, jealousy and dislike for others. We are extremely proud of the fact that we refrain from theft, bribery, wine, dancing and cinema. This should not only be only for the sake of our position of being Ulama that this profession does not allow it. Had we refrained from these sincerely for the sake of Allah, then we would have refrained from love of wealth, position, jelousy, dislike, pride and showing off too. The filth of these sins is not lesser than the interest and wine. But these internal sins can come together with our turbans and jubbas. Therefore we do not bother about them
  • The main cause of the calamities of the Muslims in all places is the division and disunity among themselves
  • All the energies of our research and education are spent on masail of differences. They are the subject of our lectures, jalsahs, journals and newspapers. The general public is forced to think that Islam is limited to these two things. Anything contrary to whatever direction they have chosen, is regarded as misguidance and opposition to Islam. The energy which we were  supposed to spend against disbelief, apostasy and the ever-spreading shamelessness in our society, is used up in mutual wrangling. The front has been left vacant for the disbelievers.
  • The question is why the inheritors of the Ambiya and the responsible people of Din do not even express half the anger against the rebels of Allah that we express against those who have opposing ideologies from us? Why is the force of our tongues and our pens not used against the incursion that is made against the principles of iman and its borders as we use it in the masail of differences in the form of a jihad? Why don’t we all become a lead wall in front of the endeavours to make Muslims apostates? Why do we do not ponder at the mission of the Ambiya and the purpose of the Qur’an which brought a revolution in the world, made foreigners into our own, removed the son of Adam from animalism to humanity and which blessed the entire world with Islam. Was it only these masail in which we are wrangling that achieved this?
  • What will we say to our Nabi Muhammad (peace be upon him) on the day of Reckoning when he will say that disbelief was being spread in the name of Islam, continuous efforts were being made to change my Ummah into that of my enemies, open interpolation of the Qur’an and Sunnah was occurring and an open disobedience of Allah and His Rasul was taking place?
  • The Ulama should make a pledge in their hearts to use their physical and educational capabilities in that front which the Qur’an and Hadith are calling one to. Secondly, they should limit their mutual ideological differences to their lessons, writings and fatwas. They should not stir up these differences in public gatherings, newspapers, pamphlets, debates and disputes. They should adopt the prophetic methods even in these circles and refrain from hurtful expressions, denigrating others, mockery and passing remarks like the journalists. Thirdly, they should begin working towards removing the ills of society in a pleasant and compassionate manner. Fourthly, they should spend the energies of their tongues and pens using the wise methods of the Messengers to combat apostasy and the interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah. This must be in accordance to the verse of debating in the best manner.

These are the words of a pined heart which have been expressed by my tongue.

  • Sheikhul Hind Moulana Mahmudul Hasan rahimahullah pondered about why the Muslims are being destroyed with regard to their religious and worldly lives.. He said: I concluded that there are two causes: One is their discarding the Qur’an and secondly, their mutual differences and disputes. Accordingly, I have a firm intention to spend the rest of my life in spreading the Qur’an by making its words and meanings common. Madrasahs should be established to teach the children Qur’an in every village. The adults should be educated with the meanings of the Qur’an in the form of Quranic lessons. They should be encouraged to practise on the Quranic teachings. Under no circumstances must the mutual disputes and quarrels of the Muslims be tolerated
  • The Qur’an has specified the enemy as Shaytan. This means that the believer’s anger and attack should always be shaytan and satanic forces. When the direction of his war is this way, it is called jihad. This is the greatest form of worship. It is mentioned in a hadith that jihad is the noblest task in Islam. However, if the direction of the war moves away from here, instead of jihad, it will now be fasad (corruption) to save which, all the Messengers and divine books of Allah were sent. In its apparent form there seems to be no difference between jihad and fasad. The differentiating factor that makes it a jihad is if the focus of attack is Shaytan and the forces of Shaytan, otherwise it will be termed as fasad
  • From governmental politics till family life and dealings, all manifest this phenomenon. Those who read the verse, “All the believers are brothers” are physically contending with one another. Where the Qur’an encouraged forgiving, overlooking and forbearing, there battles are taking place. Where it called one to perform jihad, that front is left desolate for the incursion of the enemies
  • The number of people working for the sake of Din and religion is very small. Whatever number there is, is used up in subsidiary issues while losing sight of the principal fundamental teachings of the Qur’an and Sunnah. The minutest of issues become a battleground. Even major sins like backbiting, falsehood, harming Muslims, slander and mocking are not even considered. Disputes and fights are occurring in the houses of Allah in the name of religion. The matter even reaches the police and the courts
  • These religious people do not have so much hatred for those who mock Allah and His Rasul, who drink wine and who partake of interest as they have for those who oppose their views
  • The entire country becomes embroiled in the flood of hatred but because they have given it the name of new culture and nobility, neither does it remain an illness for the nation nor is there a need to ponder about the cure. Only the mullas are disgraced in these differences and fights. People are only pondering about the cure for this whereas the differences that are occurring in the name of religion, are caused mainly, by exceeding the limits
  • Having a differing view is natural. There can only be agreement in two cases: One person says something and all the others agree with him. Or one deliberately goes against one’s own opinion in order to please the next person. Otherwise, if there is intelligence and honesty, then it is essential to have a difference of opinion. This is never harmful, and provides food for thought for the others
  • Uthman was besieged by the rebels and the rebels made imamat, Uthman told the Muslims to perform salah behind them. He mentioned a general rule: “If they do any good act, assist them in it, and when they commit any wrong act, refrain from it”… in this way he shut the door of mutual divisions and quarrels
  • When the battle raged between Mu’awiyah and Ali, the Roman government tried to win Mu’awiyah over to their side. He replied: “Do not be deceived by our differences. If you had to turn your direction towards the Muslims, I will be the first soldier in the army of Ali to combat you”
  • There is only one path to save Islam and the Muslims from mutual fights and the destructive effects of in-fighting and that is, the responsible members of every group should ponder whether the issues they are dabbling in and having differences about, are the fundamental issues of Islam for which the Qur’an was revealed and for which Rasulallah (peace be upon him) was sent. Did Rasulallah (peace be upon him) sacrifice his life for them or are the fundamental issues of Islam something else
  • I am not telling anyone to change his views. I am merely requesting people to find the correct avenue to utilize their energies. The mutual differences should be limited to the lessons in the classrooms, fatwas and research journals. Here also, the tone must be gentle according to the principles of propagation of the Qur’an. Regard the despising of another as poison. Our public jalsahs, newspapers and posters should be involved in promoting the unanimous masail and the fundamentals of Islam instead of increasing the mutual differences. Our fight, which has become a transgression, can change into jihad. As a result, the attention of the public can be turned away from mutual squabbles towards the correct service of Din
  • A person fell ill. There was a difference of opinion regarding his diagnosis… Whatever he diagnoses will be accepted. But they don’t go around denigrating the other doctors, saying they have a difference of opinion, leave all of them. Why don’t do the same with the differences of the Ulama?
  • After spending your energy in finding out from an authentic learned man, you are not responsible for any errors thereafter. Allah will regard you as innocent. Even if he delivers the wrong verdict, there will be no harm or accusation against you. This should not happen that for a doctor you find out that he has an M.B.B.S degree and what kind of patients are treated more in his surgery, but for an alim, you merely limited yourself to his turban, kurtah and beard and that he speak in a jalsah. If you did this, then you are not absolved of your responsibility. If he erred in his ruling, you will not be held responsible for the error.

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‘Aqa’id an-Nasafi

Introduction to the Islamic Creed

By:

Imam Abu Hafs an-Nasafi

Translated by:

Dr. Musharraf Hussain

 

  • Some 25 commentaries have been written on it. One of the most popular was the commentary written by S’ad ud-Din Taftazaani (d. 793 AH) Since then, it has been taught in Islamic schools and seminaries throughout the world, particularly in Central and South Asia.
  • Al-Fiqh ul-Akbar by Imam Abu Hanifa (d. 150 AD/767 AD). Perhaps this scholar’s most seminal work besides his contribution to jurisprudence; it is one of the earliest works that systematically deals with all the topics of theology as well as using a polemical style.
  • Al-’Aqidat ut-Tahawiyyah by Imam Abu Ja’far at-Tahawi (d. 239/853 AD), a text that has been agreed upon by the Orthodox Muslims for over 1,000 years. More than 15 commentaries have been written on the work.
  • Lum’at ul-I’tiqad by Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qud mah (d. 620/1223). This text spread across the Muslim world and gained prominence in some of the most prestigious seminaries for over 700 years.
  • ‘Aqa’id an-Nasafi by Imam Abu Hafs an-Nasafi, (d. 537/1143 AD) a text agreed upon through the ages and adapted by the Ottomans for most of their 900 year reign.
  • These scholars were not bringing about a new school or a new formulated set of doctrines, but rather they were codifying, protecting and reinforcing the Orthodox creed. These methods are loosely known as the Hanbali (sometimes called Athari), Maturidi and Ash’ari systems and they are all from the wide body of Muslim Orthodoxy.
  • Inter-community work between the followers of the three methods of Orthodox creed. A programme of acceptance of variety and valid difference of opinion has been emphasised by him and we praise Allah for that.

 

From the Text

  • Ilhaam (Intuition) according to the people of truth is not one of the sources of gaining knowledge.
  • Allah is neither an element nor a property, nor does He have a form or a body. He is neither limited, nor numbered. He neither consists of parts, nor is He an organism and He is not a finite being.
  • Divine attributes are Knowledge, Power, Life, Hearing, Sight, Will, Intellect, Creation, Provider and Speech
  • Speech ofAllah is an eternal attribute without letters or sounds
  • Allah will not be seen in a particular place, direction or by the rays of light. Nor will there be distance between the onlooker and the Almighty.
  • The questions asked in the grave by the angels, Munkir and Nakir, are established by evidence from the texts.
  • The quantity of deeds a person does may increase, but the Imaan of the person does not increase or decrease.
  • Imaan and Islam are one and the same thing. When a person has accepted mentally and pronounced verbally (the testimony of faith), then he can say, ‘I am a believer,’ and it is not correct to say, ‘I am a believer, insha’Allah (God willing)’
  •  There is a divine wisdom in sending prophets. Allah has always sent prophets from amongst their own people so as to tell them good news and warn them.
  • The saints’ ‘miracle’ is really the miracle of the Prophet. He cannot be a saint if he is not firm in his religion; i.e. he must verbally express and practically obey the Prophet (SAW).
  • Muslims must appoint a leader who rules them, establishes the islamic legal system, protects them from the enemies, maintains the army, collects (Islamic? taxes, enforces law and order to control the rebellious and the robbers, organises the Friday and ‘Eid prayers, reconciles disputes and conflicts, takes oaths, arranges the marriage of children who have no guardians and distributes the booty.
  • The leader must be present. He cannot be hidden nor awaited. He must be from the Quraish.
  •  He does not have to be the best on in his time. However, it is a condition that he must be capable of ruling well, commanding authority, establishing the law and protecting the boundaries of Muslim country and able to deliver justice to any victims.
  • The leader cannot be removed from his office due to his mischievous behaviour or cruelty. It is permissible to pray behind any good or bad Imaam and it is permissible to pray the funeral of any good or bad person.
  •  The Mujtahid (jurist) could sometimes make a mistake and at other times he could be correct.
  • We take the outward literal meanings of the texts and to misconstrue their meanings like the Baatiniyyah is regarded as kufr and rejection of the texts.

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Muharram And Ashura

Virtues and Laws

By Sheikhul Hadith Hadhrat Moulana

Fazlur Rahman Azmi

-     Facts that are incorrect and baseless but has become famous among the Ulama and laymen.

-     Of the twelve months of the Islaamic calendar, four months are regarded as sacred months. These are Muharram, Rajab, Dhul Qa’da and Dhul Hijjah. Because of their special significance, the rewards for good deeds are increased during these months.At the same time, one should take care to abstain from sins during these months because their consequences are also significantly worse.

-     The Arabs use to alter the sequence of the months. It was in the 10th year after Hijrah that Rasulullaah  declared that the months had returned to the sequence that Allaah (Glorified and Exalted is He) ordained when He created the universe. During the year before his declaration, Rasulullaah  sent HadhratAbu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with Him) as the Ameer of Hajj. Although the month in which Hadhrat Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with Him) led the Hajj was accepted as Dhul Hijjah, it was actually Dhul Qa’da because of the calendar alteration during the period of ignorance. Nevertheless, when Rasulullaah  performed Hajj during the 10th year after Hijrah, the month that everyone regarded as Dhul Hijaah was really Dhul Hijjah. It was perhaps for this reason that Rasulullaah  postponed his Hajj for this year. It was on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah on the plains of Mina that rasulullaah  made the above declaration.

-     Another virtue of Muharram is that the fasts during this month are second in excellence only to the fasts of Ramadhaan. Although every day and every month belongs to Allaah (Glorified and Exalted is He), Rasulullaah  has mentioned that Muharram is Allaah’s month.

-     Hadhrat Abu Hurayra (may Allah be pleased with Him) reports that Rasulullaah  said, ‘After the fasts of Ramadhaan, the best fasts are those observed during Allaah’s month of Muharram.

-     It was on the 10th of Muharram (Aashura) that the Bani Israa’eel (the Jews) and Hadhrat Moosa (Peace be upon Him) were saved from Fir’oun and his army.

-     The 10th of Muharram is a significant day in the Islaamic history. Rasulullaah  used to fast on this day and commanded the Sahabah (May Allah be pleased with them) also to fast the fast of this day was initially Waajib (compulsory), but the compulsion was waived when the fasts of Ramadhaan were made Fardh.

-     It is therefore necessary for the Muslims to fast on the 9th and 10th of Muharram or on the 10th and 11th. Because certain narrations mention that one should fast a day before Aashura and a day after, it is best for a Muslim to fast on the 9th, 10th and 11th of Muharram (three days). However, to fast only on the 10th is Makrooh Tanzihi (i.e. an act disliked by the Shari’ah).

-     The Bani Israa’eel also did the same and this day was always regarded as a day of fasting among the Bani Israa’eel. Emulating the practice of the Jews, the Quraysh also fasted on this day.

Rasulullaah  also kept this fast (in Makkah). When Rasulullaah  arrived in Madinah, he asked the Jews why they observed this fast.

-     Hadhrat Abu Qataadah (may Allah be pleased with Him) narrated that Rasulullaah  Said, “I have strong hope that Allaah (Glorified and Exalted is He) will forgive the previous year’s sins for fasting on the day of aashura. The sins referred to here are minor sins. Taubah is required to secure forgiveness for major sins.

-     About the hadith on fasting the 9 and 10 OR 10 and 11, the narrator Muhammad Ibn Abi Layla has been classified as a weak narrator, a factor which weakens the status of the hadith. Ibn Rajab hambali (Rahmatullaahi Alay) has mentioned that the word “or” towards the end of this hadith could indicate a doubt in the narrator’s mind. This means that the narrator could be unsure whether Rasulullaah  said “a day before” or “a day after”. Ibn Rajab (Rahmatullahi Alay) has also mentioned those Ahadeeth that contain the word “and” instead of the word “or”. These narrations therefore mention that one should fast on three days, viz. the 9th, 10th and 11th of Muharram.

-     Abdul Haqq Dehlawi states best to fast all 3, then 9 and 10 and then 9 only. Fasting on the 10th and 11th holds no status at all, while it is not Sunnah to fast only on the 9th.

-     According to the canonical work “Darrul Mukhtaar”, is it Makrooh Tanzihi to fast on the 10th only. (i.e. excluding the day before or the day after).

-     Is it commendable to spend freely on one’s family during the day of Ashura or not? There is a group of Ulema who are from the opinion that this practice is unfounded. They maintain that the hadith substantiating this practice is unreliable. However, this standpoint of theirs is neither sound nor rational. It is a case of swaying to extremities. Judicious Muhadditheen are of the opinion that the hadith in this regard is reliable.

-     From what Imaam Bayhaqi (Rahmatullaahi Alay) says, it appears as if the hadith about spending freely on one’s family is authentic according to other Muhadditheen besides Ibn Hibbaan. This is evident from the fact he has narrated this hadith from many Sahaba (may Allah be pleased with Him) who all narrate from Rasulullaah .

 

-     In his commentary of “Durrul Mukhtar”, Allaama Shaami (Rahmatullaahi Alay) writes, “The hadith concerning spending freely on one’s family is authentic, as Haafidh Suyuti (Rahmatullaahi Alay) has mentioned in his book ‘Ad Durar’. However, the narration about applying Kohl (antimony) on the day of Aashura is a fabrication, as Allaama Sakhaawi (Rahmatullahi ALay) has mentioned with conviction in ‘Al Maqaasidul Hasana’.

-     Ibn Hajr al Haythami states about the Nawasib “In opposition to mourning, they make the day a day of rejoicing and celebration. On this day, they adorn themselves, apply henna and kohl, wear new clothing and spend their wealth very liberally. They also prepare elaborate meals that are not prepared on other days. They regard these practices as Sunnah practices and have made them customary. However, they are actually opposing the Sunnah because none of these practices have been reported from Rasulullaah .”

-     The famous virtues of the day of Aashura that are all fabrications are:

*   That the person applying kohl on this day will not have any pain in the eyes for the entire year.

*   That the person who baths on this day will not suffer any illness for the year.

*   That there is a special Salaah to be performed on this day.

*   That the repentance of Hadhrat Aadam (Peace be upon Him) was accepted on this day.

*   That the ark of Hadhrat Nooh (Peace be upon Him) settles on Mount Judi on this day.

*   That Hadhrat Ibraheem (Peace be upon Him) was saved from the fire on this day.

*   That on this day Allaah (Glorified and Exalted is He) sent the ram to be sacrificed in place of Hadhrat Isma’eel (Peace be upon Him)

*   That on this day Allaah (Glorified and Exalted is He) returned Hadhrat Yusuf (Peace be upon Him) to his father Hadhrat Ya’qoob (Peace be upon Him).

-     An authentic hadith reported in Tirmidhi (pg. 110) states that Qiyaamah will take place on a Friday. However, no authentic hadith says that this Friday will fall on the 10th of Muharram (i.e. the day of Aashura). It is probably because Hadhrat Shah Rafee’ud Deen (Rahmatullahi Alay) has also mentioned this in his book “Ta’leemul Islaam”and many others have also followed suit.

-     Although Allaama Anwar Shah Kashmeeri (Rahmatullahi Alay) has mentioned in his discourses of Bukhari that this belief is substantiated by an authentic hadith, Moulana Muhammad Yusuf Binori ( Rahmatullahi Alay) asserts that he has never come across such a hadith.

-     Mufti Muhammad Tawi Uthmaani (Daamat Barakaatuh) has mentioned that this hadith is a fabrication. A hadith of this nature has been classified as a fabrication by Sheikh Ali bin Muhammad Ibn Arraq (Rahmatullahi Alay) and by Allaama Suyuti (Rahmatullahi Alay). A person called Habeen Ibn Abi Habeeb has concocted it.

-     It has therefore been established that no authentic hadith states that Qiyaamah will occur on the day of Aashura.

-     It is perhaps because of this that Rasulullaah  used to recite Surah Alif Laam Meem Sajdah (Surah 32) and Surah Dahar (Surah 76) in the Fajr Salaah every Friday. These two surahs mention the creation of Hadhrat Aadam (Peace be upon Him) and the occurrence of Qiyaamah. Therefore, by reciting these surahs, people are reminded about Qiyaamah.

-     Although Allaama Ibn Katheer (Rahmatullaahi Alay) has recorded a narration in this Tafseer stating that the ark of Hadhrat Nooh (Peace be upon Him) settled on Mount Judi on the day of Aashura, he has added that this narration is “Ghareeb”. As noticed in many of his comments, when Allaaama Ibn Katheer (Rahmatullahi Alay) classifies a hadith as “Ghareeb”, he means that the hadith should be disregarded. We will therefore suffice only with what has been stated in authentic ahadeeth.

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Towards Reforming of the Heart

Book One

Extracts from the beautiful teachings of

Hazrat Maulana Yunus Patel

  • Moral and spiritual reformation and purification; the central theme being the love of Allah Ta’ala and Rasulullah (Peace be upon Him), which is the catalyst in engendering piety.
  • It is said: “The room, in which there is no mirror, is worse than a prison-cell for a woman”. …of course, the same can be said about many, many men, who spend hours in front of the mirror for the sole purpose of beautification.
  • Even so, the mirror must not become an obsession. The efforts made in beautifying the face and maintaining the physical body in good shape, have turned into a multi-billion dollar industry. The interest and concern is directed towards something which will inevitably turn to dust; whereas we have not been created for just the beautification of the face and body; that from the morning until night, the person is fixated with nothing but his physical appearance.
  • Various kind of mirrors: There are those mirrors that give true and correct reflection, there are mirrors that magnify the person’s features, and there are even mirrors that reflect a distorted or twisted image…The face may be the same, but the reflection is dependant on the type of mirror.
  • …A person’s beauty is affected by other factors.
  • Accordingly, certain factors, like sickness, sleep, travel, etc. have an effect on a person’s appearance.
  • The spiritual heart is also not always in the same condition. In fact, the heart is called ‘qalb’ in the Arabic language due to the fact that it is perpetually in a state of change.
  • Rasulullah ( Peace be upon Him) explained the likeness of the heart as: ‘The heart (qalb) takes its name from its constant changes (taqallub). The likeness of the heart is that of a feather at the base of a tree, being turned over an over by the wind.’                                                                                                                                   ‘The heart of the son of aadam changes more quickly that a pan of rapidly boiling water.’
  • The mirrors for the spiritual heart are the Qur’aan Shareef, Ahadeeth of rasulullah ( Peace be upon Him) and the advice of the Ahlullah (People of Allah).
  • Similarly, there are Muslims who do not give a true reflection: If a Muslim is of bad character, and his actions are “twisted” and “distorted” due to his indulgence in sins, then he will offer a proper reflection.
  • If we are assuming the role of the mirror, then we should keep in mind that a good mirror only discloses weaknesses or defects. A good mirror does not criticise, exaggerate and advertise to all and sundry, another person’s weakness.
  • Being a “mirror” to another could be taken to mean that a person should become righteous o that whoever sees him will be encouraged to do good deeds; like a person who looks into a mirror, and then tries to perfect his appearance.
  • If we are concerned about the beautification of our Imaan, we will make every effort to remove any trace of ‘unsightliness’ (i.e. pride, show, vanity, jealousy, malice, etc.) or even sins such as lying, cursing, casting evil gazes, interest, fraud and so forth.
  • In the beauty industry, we will find all kinds of products, together with innumerable beauticians and consultants offering various treatments and packages. There are so many different kinds of washes, scrubs, lotions, and creams advertised for facial and body beauty – detoxifying wash, day cream, night cream, nourishing cream, replenishing cream, moisturising cream and what not…..In the spiritual industry, we will also find beauty “products”.
  • So should we be giving our spiritual hearts an invigorating detoxifying wash and scrub, with sincere Taubah and Istighfaar.
  • The dua of morning and evening, Zikrullah, Tilawah of the Qur’aan Shareef, Durood shareef, Ishraaq, Dhuhaa, Awwabeen, Tahajjud…all of which enhance the spiritual beauty during the day and replenish it during the night.
  • “sun block” to protect themselves against the harmful effects of sun exposure, using those lotions and creams which offer, as they say, “broad spectrum UVA and UVB protection”. Allah Ta’ala has also granted us a “Broad spectrum sin protection” – and it is ‘marketed’ as “TAQWA”.
  • Apply it generously, all over one’s heart, body and soul, for maximum protection against sins: i.e. be conscious of Allah Ta’ala in every sphere of life.
  • ‘The lesson is this : When there was a lot of ash, then there was danger that the ash-cloud would damage the engine of the boeing you were flying. Your life was in danger and the lives of all the passengers were in danger. If you were caught in such an ash-cloud, you could have gone and the passenger could have gone. So they gave ou a ‘round about’ route, to avoid the ash-clouds and reach you destination. The lesson we take is that when there is temptation to sin, or some fitnah approaching, we must avoid it. We must take a ‘round about’ route. If that plane crashed, the lives would have gone. However, here, if there is a ‘crash’ – i.e. the person falls into sin – the spiritual life – Imaan – can go.
  • …Spiritual crash…The environment of drugs, pornography, fornication and adultery, gambling, music, etc. are like those ash-clouds.
  • Avoid sin….think that the ash clouds are approaching.
  • You must be an example. YOu must show to others: I am a muslim. …That you do not behave like others behave.
  • Do we take the opportunity to prove our sincere and deep love for Allah Ta’ala? Do we subscribe to “Fafirroo ilallaah’ – i.e. we flee to Allah Ta’ala? or do we recklessly’fly’ into the ash clouds of sins, unconcerned that we may be meeting our spiritual death?
  • There is no doubt the environment around us is hazardous, dangerous and high-risk for our Imaan. Despite the scenario, a Muslim must be courageous.
  • This ‘ghaflat’ (negligence) is the Hen which lays the eggs of sins.
  • When Nabi (Peace be upon Him) was with Hazrat Halima all his beautiful characteristics where not apparent at that time, when she took the little baby into her arms. At that stage, it wa only the physical body of Nabi (peace be upon Him) as a baby… yet look at the tremendous Barakah.
  • If so much of Barakah came with just lifting and carrying the physical body of Nabi (Peace be upon Him), then what would we say about the Barakaat and the blessings that a person will see and experience in his own life, if he has to implement the teachings and character of Nabi (Peace be upon Him)?
  • Have we ever stopped to think that one day, very soon, we will leave this world wrapped in a simple kafan (shroud), the pattern and style of which has remained the same and will always remain as is? …with no designer names or brand labels.
  • Since some people would have even competed in giving a costly kafan, Rasulullah (peace be upon Him) said: “Do not be extravagant in shrouding, for it will be quickly decayed.
  • Many are without employment, food and even homes – more especially in thes times wherein inflation has gone through the roof, and a loaf of bread and a litre of milk are beyond the means of the poor. We should be considerate and remember that we will be questioned about our expenditure on the Day of Qiyaamah.
  • Thus, our clothing and accessories should not become the medium of us falling prey to the deadly diseases of takabbur (pride), ujub (vanity) and riyaa (show and ostentation), as is so common today.
  • We have been cautioned in the Hadeeth in regards to even the intention behind our dressing : “whoever wears garments for fame, Allah will clothe him with the garment of disgrace.”
  • Allah Ta’ala holds back his Rahma (mercy) from those who break family ties.
  • We who are the slaves of our egos and nafs should be careful that shaytaan does not instigate us to sever family ties in the name of Deen, whereas it is, in reality, for the sake of our nafs. As a result of breaking ties, the entire family – in truth, the entire community suffers.
  • ….in almost all cases it is because the ego has been hurt by the snubbing or bad attitude of relatives that causes the break up. As Muslims, we should be good to our relatives , even if they are unkind to us.
  • A brother met me and said to me that he has elderly parents, whom he is taking care of. However, from their side, there is no appreciation. He keeps serving them and giving to them, but there is no expression of gratitude. His brother visits the parents ‘once in a blue moon’ and brings a gift; and for this, the parents sing this son’s praises. And yet, this is the son who seldom gives them his time and hardly ever serves them. I replied to him:   “Remember just one simple thing, and all this disappointment and these frustrations and will disappear:

                                         “DO FOR ALLAH’S PLEASURE. HE WILL GIVE FROM HIS TREASURE.”

  • …he had a picture of a rose held in a hand. The thorn from that rose flower had injured the person’s thumb and blood trickled down that thumb.
  • Don’t think that there is no danger in the rose garden. That garden maybe filled with all kinds of charming, colourful and fragrant rose flowers, but don’t go in, thinking that there is no danger.
  • This world is like a beautiful garden. Smell the fragrance – i.e. make use of the things of the world. Use and enjoy everything Halal, but beware of sins… the thorns of sins. These cannot be trusted, for these will definitely cause harm and injury. So do not fall for the temptation to touch, see, hear, speak or walk towards Haraam.
  • How many have lost their health, to Aids and other such diseases? How many have forsaken their religion for a beautiful or handsome face, or some wealth, power, name – at the great cost of their salvation in the hereafter?
  • There are many laboratories working and specialising in detergents…each one trying to produce the best detergent, which would be easiest in removing stains. Each company makes a claim that their detergents are the best, giving you a power-cleaning wash and removing the toughest stains……the spiritual heart also requires detergents for the heart to remain ‘whiter than white’, brighter than bright’ or ‘super bright’
  • Those stains of the spiritual heart (i.e. one’s minor sins) which are easy to remove, are washed away with the water of Wudhu (ablution), with Salaah and with many different Ibaadaat, which the Ahaadeeth have informed us, have the effect of removing the stains of sins.
  • Rasulullah (Peace be upon Him) said : ‘Whoever performed Wudhu and performed it well (i.e. according to the prescribed rules), all his sins will go out, even from under his nails.’
  • Major sins leave ‘tough’ stains which require a hard wash with a very strong detergent. The power detergents, which have the effect of removing the big and unsightly blotches and splotches of major sins on the spiritual heart are sincere taubah and Istighfaar, and if one wants a bright, white spiritual heart, then the ‘bleach’ of Zikrullah should be used – just as we use bleach to whiten garments.
  • If the stains of major sins are not removed, then the heart not only becomes pitch black, it becomes hard, and at this stage the person’s Imaan is on dangerous ground.
  • …he asked me as to what I was watching. I replied ‘The flights coming into Madina Shareef.’ He replied : ‘ No planes are permitted to fly in the vicinity of the Haram Shareef.’ I explained : ‘The flights are the flights of the angels, who have collected the Durood and Salaam of millions of Muslims, throughout the world, and who are now conveying these to Rasulullah (Peace be upon Him).
  • …they became bay’ah (pledging allegiance) and traversed the path to Allah Ta’ala (Sulook). All their time was fully occupied with studies. There was no such ‘free’ time to pass. Their studies were their Ibaadah and Mujahadah.
  • In these days, fitnahs are crashing upon the Ummah, like an avalanche. Students have more free time. This free time gives Shaytaan and nafs the opportunity to lead them into all kinds of sins.
  • Just the cell phone alone has become the means of trapping them in illicit relationships, pornography and other vices. What then of the other fitnahs that they are exposed to?
  • …Due to the deficiency in ‘tarbiyyah’ and the general indifference by students, in respect to practicing on their Ilm (knowledge), the Mashaa’ik of the time accept students for bay’ah.
  • Otherwise we just have mass production of ‘Ulama, but very little “haqeeqat” (reality) of years of knowledge. Titles have become so cheap, that they have become a crying shame and embarrassment for the Ummah. …Enphasis is given to titles and accolades, whereas attention should be directed towards Islaah and Tazkiyah.
  • No dogs allowed – except on leash.
  • The temperament of the nafs (carnal self/ego) is like that of the dog. It also needs to be disciplined and trained, and it also requires a leash. This leash is the leash of Shariah, the love and fear of Allah Ta’ala, and fear of accountability on the Day of Judgement, tied tightly and securely around its neck.
  • without this leash, the person will break the commands of Allah Ta’ala and violate the rights of creation. The person will steal, gamble, fornicate, suppress, oppress, abuse the spouse, children or parents, and perpetrate various other crimes. Malice, greed, jealousy, pride and other filthy, vile qualities will also be found in the person’s heart.
  • Why the suffering? …A son is disobedient and rebellious towards his father’s instructions, and arrogant in his stance against his father, demanding, swearing, abusing and adopting the bad behaviour as found common in this day and age. The father is deeply hurt, offended and angered and when he has had enough of the insolence and arrogance , he finally resorts to breaking off ties with his son. He cuts off all privileges.

Now if the entire family, even the entire community, tells that father : “forgive him. He is your son…

That father will respond : “I have no problem with forgiving him. All he has to say is, “I’m sorry”, and I will forgive him.”

However, on being encouraged to humble himself and ask for forgiveness, the son retorts with arrogance: ‘Why must I? Why do I need to? I’m

independent! I don’t need him!’

  •  Many are not fulfilling the fardh injuctions – salaah, Zakaat, fasting in Ramadhaan etc., and there are others who naively depend on wazeefas to solve their problems, not prepared to give up on sins. This is sheer foolishness. Wazeefas and taweezes are no barrier against the azaab of Allah Ta’ala, when there is indulgence and persistence in sins.
  • Allah Ta’ala explicitly spells out His conditions and His promises:                

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Allah has promised those who have believed among you and done righteous deeds that He will surely grant them succession [to authority] upon the earth just as He granted it to those before them and that He will surely establish for them [therein] their religion which He has preferred for them and that He will surely substitute for them, after their fear, security, [for] they worship Me, not associating anything with Me. But whoever disbelieves after that – then those are the defiantly disobedient. (Surah Noor 24:55

  •  A Sahabi ( May Allah be pleased with Him), who, on coming across the verse:

كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ                   ‘Every soul shall taste death’ (Surah Al-Ambiyaa 21:35)

..read it so many times that a voice was finally heard saying: ‘Your recitation has already  caused the death of 4 jinn.’

  • Hazrat Maulana Yusuf delivered his last bayaan (talk) in Lahore, Pakistan. It was during this talk that he had a heart attack, and it was on the way tot he hospital that he passed away. He was only in his 40s, so his death was very sudden and unexpected.
  • A woman had a dream – she saw Maulana Yusuf…she asked him: ‘How did you pass away?’ He replied: “The Tajalli (special mercy) of Allah Ta’ala was so intense whilst giving that talk, that i could not bear it. A beautiful rose was then brought to me and as I smelt it, my soul departed.”
  • Allah Ta’ala does not look at our bank balances, our properties, our beauty, the colour of our skin, our physique, our lineage, our language, our gender, or the chain of degrees we may have obtained. Allah Ta’ala looks at the heart. The discrimination is only on Taqwa.
  • When Allah Ta’ala commanded the angels to bow down to Hazrat Aadam (Peace be upon Him) shaytaan refused to do so. When asked as to why, he asserted:

أَنَاْ خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ      ”I am better than him. You created me from fire and created him from clay.”

…this attitude is what is termed as pride (takabbur), arrogance and cenceit (ujub), the cancer of the spiritual heart.

  • Allah Ta’ala states:

إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ مُخْتَالاً فَخُورًا       Indeed, Allah does not like those who are self-deluding and boastful.

وَلاَ تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ وَلاَ تَمْشِ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مَرَحاً     And do not turn your cheek [in contempt] toward people and do not walk through the earth exultantly.

               Indeed, Allah does not like everyone self-deluded and boastful.

  • Why has Allah Ta’ala specifically mentioned the name of Maryam (May Allah be pleased with Her)?
  • This also teaches us a very important lesson: Allah Ta’ala has granted women, respect and honour, and He wants them to guard this. Therefore, if there is no real need to reveal her name, then it should not fly around in newspapers, magazines, faxes, over Radio stations, on car numbr plates, etc.
  • This love for ‘name and fame’  is a sickness of the spiritual heart, which renders deeds unacceptable in the court of Allah Ta’ala.
  • Whilst there are some very sincere and pious Aamils (those who treat people afflicted with withcraft etc), the majority are into it as a business and trade.
  • it’s a big business. Bringing in big money. And it is also an undercover trade – where women are exploited and in some cases, sexually abused.
  • An Aamil told a person he had 6 jinns and it would cost R6000 per jinn….I told him in humour: ‘six jinns in you would hav had ou dancing. But you are very calm and relaxed. Tell the Aamil that he must first catch and tie them up, thereafter show them all to you, before payment.’ – I then told him that it is nothing but a con.
  • Trust is a lost entity.
  • Prescription for Sihr/Jinn. Every morning and evening read the following:

 3 x Durood Shareef

3 x Ayatul Kursi

3 x 3 Surah Al-Ikhlaas, Surah Al-Falaq and Surah An-Naas

11 x La Haula wala Quwata illah Billah

3 x Durood Shareef

  • Wish fountain…And if the wish is such, that it would definitely be accomplished with money, then a mere 1 cent or 2 cents would not suffice for the fulfilment of the grand wishes of those who throw with any such hope….
  • …Those who think they can tread the path to Allah Ta’ala (Sulook) on their own and also become so ‘valuable’, are quite mistaken.
  • The true Mashaa’ik do not promote and advertise themselves, nor do they canvass for Mureedeen. They do not chase after name and fame. They do not hanker after Dunya. They wish to remain concealed, but Allah Ta’ala sometimes chooses for them to be unknown. Thus, when choosing a shaykh, consider the Shaykh who is learned, practical on his knowledge, pious, trained and experienced in the field of Islaah and Tazkiya, and acknowledge by the Ulama-e-Haq as one who is truly Sahib-e-Nisbat and Waliullah.
  • Make Salaah wearing such clothes, that if a person were to visit you, you would not feel ashamed to talk and entertain your guest, wearing these clothes.
  • The Auliya Allah, the Mashaa’ik, are like those helicopters, except that they are searching for those persons who have been hijacked by nafs and shaytaan – people like us. The Auliya Allah also possess a very powerful light in their hearts: It is noor that has developed in their hearts through obedience to Allah Ta’ala and Rasulullah (Peace be upon Him) as well as total abstinence from sins. With this powerful noor, they are able to search out and save thousands, if not millions.
  • If we are spiritually weak, then e too can end up drowning in some sin or the other. And this is very much a reality : Many who have surface knowledge and they have not made much of an effort against their nafs, become victim to the storms of some sin or the other.
  • We need to learn spiritual CPR for emergency cases…
  • Sadly, many Muslims have also become hijackers, taking their Muslim brothers and sisters to Haraam – casinos, clubs, pornography, music and so forth. Or some give the injection of spiritual death, with drugs and other such Haraam, or Kufr ideologies.
  • ..The help of Allah Ta’ala is with those who are Friends. Take Heed:

وَإِن تُطِعْ أَكْثَرَ مَن فِي الأَرْضِ يُضِلُّوكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّ

إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلاَّ يَخْرُصُونَ

And if you obey most of those upon the earth, they will mislead you from the way of Allah . They follow not except assumption, and they are not but falsifying. (Surah An’aam 6:116)

 

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Rujoo’ilallah

‘Returning to Allah

By

Hazrat Maulana Yunus Patel Saheb – Rahmatullahi Alayh

  • We, on the other hand, brag and propagate our sins. Zina (adultery/fornication), which is the scourge of our society, is no longer even frowned upon…rather, it is promoted and encouraged. The television, the cinema, the cellphone, the internet, newspapers, novels and magazines glorify these types of sins. There is an open invitation to commit any sin you like.
  • A woman presented herself to Rasulullah (Peace be upon Him) and admitted to having committed the sin of zina (adultery)…A longer period and many amongst us would have disregarded and passed over the sin that had been committed – but not so for this woman.
  • When the child was able to eat solid food, she returned with him, holding some bread in    his hand, and presented herself once more to Rasulullah (Peace be upon Allah) for punishment….This is not an easy thing for any other to do, after having lovingly cared for her baby.
  • We do not even stop to think that our sinful and indecent behaviour is in the very presence of the One in whose control our lives lie, recorded by the angels in our book of deeds and recorded by the earth as yet another witness for the Day of judgment. Adding woe upon woe, our actions are also presented to Rasulullah (Peace be upon Him) – who made every sacrifice to secure for us, our salvation…Where is our shame?
  • The heart is crushed seeing the Ummah of the Beloved (Peace be upon Him) taking pleasure in sin, competing in obscenity, and literally rushing towards hellfire in merriment. May Allah forgive, guide and have mercy upon us, for it seems as if our actions are an arrogant challenge against Allah, the One who has all Power and Might.
  • In my research, I have not found record of a single Sahabi (May Allah be pleased with him), of more than 124 000 Companions (May Allah be pleased with them), having committed the sin of adultery, theft, drinking liquor, or any other major sin after having performed Hajj in the esteemed company of Rasuluallah (Peace be upon Him), and after the demise of Nabi (Peace be upon Him).
  • searching for opportunities to sin…television channel, internet, magazines etc where the content is immoral, indecent; where there is nudity, where there is filthy, crude pictures…the nafs wants some haraam gratification and satisfaction.
  • the vast number of letters and e-mails that I receive, reveal these types of sins. It has become the plague and affliction of societies throughout the world.
  • One person related how excessive and how extreme his obsession for casting lustful gazes, to the extent where there was desperation to cast lustful gazes. It had become an uncontrollable addiction which resulted in him behaving very, very disgraceful….there were problems when it came to Taharah (cleanliness) and health, problems when it cam to wife and children, and hovering above him, the threat of losing his respect and honour amongst the people. This one sin of his had become a magnet which was attracting and pulling more and more problems and complications into his life.
  • The one who gives sight, can easily snatch that sight away. If the bounty is not appreciated, the Giver takes back what is his.
  • this is what is temed Khiyaanah – treachery and abuse of trust. Allah Ta’ala knows what the heart conceals, and what the eyes see. The one who gave sight is not blind to where our gazes roam.
  • “Allah knows the treachery of the eyes and that which the heart conceals.” (Surah Ghafir 40:19)
  • Whilst evil gazes are just that – evil – its “sequel”, its “follow-up”, is generally pornography. Many more write that they are hooked to porn films and porn magazines. They fall for the bait which shaytaan tempts them with.
  • When a fisherman catches a fine fish, he reels it in. He does not throw it back into the sea. once it is hooked, once it is caught, it is pulled out – why? Because fish out of water, when scaled and washed, when ‘Masaalaad’ and fried, taste nice.                                                                                        The believer makes a fine catch for shaytaan                                                                                                                                                                                            Do we want to become that meal for shaytaan
  • because that is exactly what happens to the heart of the believer who dashes for the bait of sins: His Imaan is ‘scaled’, his good deeds are ‘washed away’, his heart and soul are marinated in darkness and finally fried in fire of restlessness – th the delight of shaytaan. Allah Ta’ala forbid that that soul has to also contend with the fire of Hell…
  • Apply tot he entire world – and we see a very, very sick society of men and women. And many Muslims do not lag behind when it comes to being part of that number, part of the statistic.
  • Those who have the habit of viewing pornography generally do so at night. They spend the day working, and the night watching filth. They are overcome with restlessness and are deprived of sleep. And sleep deprivation is a one way ticket to temporary psychosis – to mental instability. Long term, the brain is badly damaged, and the person loses his sanity. He ends up in an asylum or shoots himself.
  • one night, whilst watching porn, there was a tremor. The building began to shake and everyone got up, running down the stairs in their pyjamas, running helter skelter, fearing the worse, expecting that that was their end, and he said that my dua hit his heart: O Allah! Do not let the Angel of death find us in any sin, in gambling, drinking, pornography. 
  • being in the service of the Deen, sometimes teaching and propagating Deen, sometimes following the Shaykh here and there, sometimes in the work of Tabligh, sometimes sitting in the Khanqah – yet engaging in sin? How can I deliberately and intentionally move in the direction of disobedience? How can I deliberately displease my Allah? …Where is my conscience? Where is my Taqwa? …Do I just throw it out of the window when i see some pretty, attractive face, some handsome face, or some money easily obtained in an Haraam way?
  • How many of us brag, advertise and highlight visits to Haraam venues – cinemas, premiers, clubs, raves – with photographs taken and published in magazines and newspapers.
  • When Hazrat ‘Umar (May Allah be pleased with Him) asked the reason for doing so, Rasulullah (Peace be upon Him) explained that there as such a large gathering of angels, that he did not have place to put his feet fully on the ground.
  • How many times have our eyes seen what should not be seen? How much of Taubah did we make for that? How many times have our hands touched what should not be touched? How much of taubah did we make? How many times have our feet walked to those places and venues that are Haraam for us to go to? How many tears did we shed over those sins?
  • Taubah is ‘the point of no return’, with the firm detemintation that: “Come what may, I am not returning to my sin.”
  • A 14 year old informed me she had an entire album filled with photographs and pictures of film actors and actresses. … She was an addict of the cinema and television. She wrote : “After you talk on the 27th night, I burnt the album and I gave up an addiction to mives and other sins.”
  • …Sins, which outwardly appear to be the ‘drink’ that sustains our lives; is in reality, the parasite devouring our Imaan.
  • The person indulgin in adultery or fornication…watching filth on television, cinema or the pornographic websites on the internet, reading filthy magazines and novels when no one is around, thinking : ‘No one is watching.’ will find some difficulty in restraining himself or herself and abstaining from sin. Effort, courage and perseverance and required.
  • Allah who is the All Powerful : He can cause the very earth that we commit sins upon, to digest us in split seconds; or if He so wishes, He can cause the very limbs that we use to engage in sins to develop paralysis; or he could snatch away the faculties of sight, hearing and speech, which he has given to us.
  • He has therefore informed us in the Qur’aan Shareef:

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  • Say: “O ‘Ibadi (My slaves) who have transgressed against themselves (by committing evil deeds and sins)! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah, verily Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.  (Surah Zumar 39:53)

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Ikhlaas (sincerity)

A Discourse By

Moulana Yunus Patel

  • Out of His Loving Kindness and Compassion, our Beloved Allah has included the ‘Ah’ of our distress in his personal name, Allah; so that when we experience pain, grief and sorrow we may remember Him and call upon Him.
  • Allah, which is not only sweet, as it is gentle, but also a name which includes the plea of His servant…
  • …We should just reflect on the fact that we pay for spectacles, medication, ointments, etc. yet for this breathing, eyesight, hearing and other blessings, no bill has been posted to us….Imagine if Allah Ta’ala had to send to us a bill for every ne’mat (bounty) that He grants to us?
  • If we were to look within ourselves and reflect over our actions, we will find Ikhlaas (Sincerity) is that ingredient which is lacking in our Ibaadah (worship), in our  Mu’aamalaat (dealings), Zikr, Tilawat (i.e. recitation of the Qur’an Sharif), Ta’leem (teaching), charities, in the establishment of many of our Deeni Institutes and so too, in many of our religious activities.
  • Due to our deficiency in Ikhlaas, we are not seeing the fruits of our efforts in the massive gatherings, hours and hours of lectures, conferences, seminars, the multitude of Islamic publications and everything else that we organise and participate in.
  • …It ma even be that neither the speaker, nor the listener, nor organisers have Ikhlaas.
  • If we are inviting to Allah Ta’ala and not ourselves, then we would be supportive, encouraging and an assistance to others rendering the same or similar tasks; not rejcting and condemning them. This, in itself, is a clear sign of insincerity and Takabbur (Pride)…How can we entertain a superiority complex when we have not an inkling as to whether any of our efforts have been accepted  by Allah Ta’ala?…
  • Whilst such a person maybe applauded for his eloquence, his intelligence, and his brilliant and innovative ideas to cure the ailments of our Ummah, there is no real effect. His words will fall on ears but his words will not fall onto hearts. Why?
  • In fact, some of these self-styled Islamic Scholars – of whom there are plentiful in the world – will be fond freely intermingling and socialising with the opposite sex at such conferences, missing their Salaah and even indulging shamelessly in other sins.
  • …There are so many who talk of “The rise of Islam’, ‘The Rise of Islam’,  yet are unable to ‘rise’ before sunrise to perform Fajr Salaah – which is a Fardh (Compulsory) injunction.
  • If the speaker is Mukhlis (sincere) then the listeners are not Mukhlis [i.e. they are not really keen on making the Islaah (reformation) of their nafs, or it has become just routine to attend a weekly program, or go out for some ta’leem]. As a result, their hearts cannot receive that which the speaker is passing on.
  •   If both these categories possess Ikhlaas then the third party – the organisers – may be defective in intention. Many a time the organisers of such programs are motivated by numerous worldly reasons, and as a result, there is no evident benefit.
  • …Then there are Qiraat competitions. The best reader is promised some material gain, eg. a ticket for Umrah. Which ‘Qari Saheb’ or Hafez is going to have so much Ikhlaas that his reading will be solely for the pleasure of Allah Ta’ala?
  • In a capsule, Moulana Muhammad Zakariyya presented its reality, saying: “All it is, is to correct ones niyyat (intention). Nothing else. It’s beginning is : “Innamal a’maa-lu bin-niy-yaat’ (Verily all actions are judged by the intentions) and the end is : “An ta’-budallaha ka-annaka ta-rahu’ (That you worship Allah as if you are seeing Him).”
  • …It is not sufficient for a Muslim to confine himself to physical ibaadah only. …A group of people informed the Aabid (a great worshipper) of the Bani Israeel that a tribe nearby was worshipping a tree. He was naturally very disturbed and upset, and thus decided to cut down the tree. With an axe in hand he set off to fulfil the task. On the way he meets Shaytaan in the form of an elderly man…Shaytaan persuaded his thus : “Why concern yourself with such matters? let them worship what they wish. It would be better for you to continue with your Ibaadat…”
  • The Ayaah (verses) of the Qur’aan Sahrif and the Ahadith (statements) of Rasulullah (Peace be upon Him), which highlight the excellence and merit of the Ahle-ilm (people of knowledge) is in regard to those who practice on their knowledge, and who develop the reality thereof in their Zaahiri (external) and Baatini (internal) “a ‘maal’.
  • That Aalim who entertains his own ‘greatness’, ‘distinction’ and ‘status’ at heart, making no effort in the direction of Islaah (reformation), Tazkia (purification) and  Fanaa ‘iyat (Annihilation) is devoid of the reality and essence of his knowledge.
  • Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jailani was occupied in ibaadat….he heard a voice fromt he cloud telling him that he no longer needed to pray due to his great ibaadat…He recognised the trick of Shaytaan and immediately recited “La haula la quwata illah billah”…..Shaytaan told him “your Knowledge saved you”. Sheikh Adbul Qadir Jailani replied: “My knowledge did not save me; Allah saved me.” This is ikhlaas.
  • Even if one sees a great Wali (friend) of Allah in one’s dream, directing one to transgression, then too, such a dream is disregarded. Otherwise, the interpretation must be taken from a person well versed in the science of interpretation.
  • …Do not ask just anyone with title of ‘Hazrat’, ‘Moulana’, ‘Sheikh’, ‘Ameer’, ‘Imaam’ or ‘Mufti’. First check his credentials…Because one of the cheapest commodities these days is titles…Certificates can be obtained. ‘a cent, a dozen’. So check. Verify.
  • A difference of opinion does not mean that an Aalim, who is on the Haq, is in the wrong. His opinion must be based on Daleel (proof) taken from the Qur’aan Sharif and Ahadith, and not from his ‘pocket’. In fact, the scholars of Deen regard ‘differences of opinions’ as a mercy for the Ummat. Hence, these opinions should be valued.
  • being well versed and acquainted in only the language of Arabic does not make one an Aalim, if the heart is barren of the Ma’rifat  (recognition) of Allah Ta’ala. …After all, Abu Jahl was recognised and renowned for his eloquence of the Arabic language, but his epithet is ‘Abu Jahl’ (The father of ignorance).
  • In fact, my Sheikh once mentioned that if we have to consider the labels attached to, or embossed on our Musallahs, Tasbeehs, etc., we will note: ‘MADE IN KOREA’, ‘MADE IN CHINA’, ‘MADE IN JAPAN’, etc. The majority of the companies manufacturing such items are owned by the Kuffaar. Thus, these Kuffaar are being used in service to Muslims…
  • …Our condition is akin to the unscrupulousness of that person who was walking with two pieces of an expensive shawl tied to his feet, while he carried his shoes on his head.
  •   Someone questioned him : “What is the upside down ‘Amal’ (action)?”

That person replied : “I received the shawl as part of inheritance, but I had to pay for these  shoes with my own money. I am therefore                                                                     saving the leather of the shoes because my  hard-earned money has gone into the purchase of these shoes.”

The condition of our Imaan is like that shawl. It means nothing to us because we have

made no sacrifice for it. So we trample on Imaan and Islam. Because there was no effort

made in obtaining it, we ‘evict’ that precious Imaan from our hearts.

It is due to this lack of appreciation that many leave the fold of Islam and die on Kufr…

  • A person disclosed that prior to changing his life, he collected interest monies and utilised it for only the Haraam entertainment he indulged in. In fact, he hd had a seperate bank account for his Haraam money, and another that was strictly for Halaal. His argument has been : Since he was using Haraam for Haraam, then Haraam would offset and cancel the other Haraam. …When a person makes ‘Mashwara’ (consults) with Shaytaan, then these are the ridiculous arguments that are taken into consideration.
  • Ikhlaas is something that we cannot aquire by just reading a kitaab (book). IF this was possible then everyone would just pick upa a kitaab or even some transcribed lecture on Ikhlaas and Ikhlaas would have entered the heart.
  • ..One scholar was reprimanded by his Sheikh and told that he was void of ‘Akhlaaq’ (good character). He got annoyed and wrote a lengthy book on Akhlaaqm abd presented it to the Sheikh. The Sheikh said: “I did not say : ‘You don’t know ‘Akhlaaq’. I said : ‘YOu don’t have Akhlaaq.’.”
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O my father, do not worship Satan. Indeed Satan has ever been, to the Most Merciful, disobedient.

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           O my father, indeed I fear that there will touch you a punishment from the Most Merciful so you would be to Satan a companion [in Hellfire].”

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[His father] said, “Have you no desire for my gods, O Abraham? If you do not desist, I will surely stone you, so avoid me a prolonged time.”

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[Abraham] said, “Peace will be upon you. I will ask forgiveness for you of my Lord. Indeed, He is ever gracious to me. (Surah Maryam 19:44-47)

  • That Sheikh who is not ‘Kaamil’ and ‘mut’taqee’, will get offended, if after the second reprimand, the mureed does not conform. His anger is based on the fact that he keeps before himself, his status as a Sheikh, whose every instruction has to be heeded and followed through by his mureeds. Due to him considering only himself, he gets angry when his mureed does not listen.
  • This anger is not for Allah Ta’ala but it is because : “I told him three times and he still has not kept a beard. I told him half a dozen times and he still staking drugs. I told him so many times and he still committing Zina.”…This anger is not because the mureed is indulging in Haraam, displeasing Allah Ta’ala and inviting the wrath of Allah Ta’ala.
  • A Kaamil Sheikh sympathises and feels for his mureeds. His repetition and anger is because : “If he continues indulging in such Haraam, then one day he will destroy himself.”… What a world of difference between the two forms of anger.                                 

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Indeed he succeeds who purifies his ownself.

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And indeed he fails who corrupts his ownself. (Surah Ash-Shams 91:9-19)

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Have you seen he who has taken as his god his [own] desire, and Allah has sent him astray due to knowledge and has set a seal upon his hearing and his heart and put over his vision a veil? So who will guide him after Allah ? Then will you not be reminded? (Surah Al-Jaathiya 45:23)

  • Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi advised : “Now ask the student or the person upon whom you expressed unjustifiable anger, to remove his shoes,  turn it upside downa nd put it on your head for five minutes, and tell him that you are trying to cure your spiritual illness.” This Sheikh-ul-Hadith wrote back saying that the ‘prescription’ was so bitter that before the completion of reading the letter, he was cured. What would have been our reaction to such advice from a Sheikh?…We would have said : “Thankyou very much for your advice. You can keep the Bai’at. I am going to another Sheikh.’
  • May Allah Ta’ala accept what has been said. May Allah Ta’ala grant me, as well, the taufeeq to say whatever I am saying with Ikhlaas. Make dua that Allah Ta’ala fill my heart with Ikhlaas because if I am going to speak with ‘riyaa’ them I will get nothing here and nothing in the hereafter.
  • The prescription of the times is the simplest and easiest, and the only effort we really require to make in these times of fitnah (trial) and corruption, is that together with fulfilling those Rights which are Fardh, Waajib and Sunnat, we restrain ourselves from all sins. A little Zikr, accompanying this, will then yield great results. We will then, insha-Allah, see what Ikhlaas Allah Ta’ala grants to the heart, and what rewards follow on Ikhlaas.
  • In the times of past, to become a Wali of Allah required much more effort. Since Fitnah and Fasaad was still at its minimum, the Mujahada (spiritual striving) was in positive Zikr. Thus, a person was required to read thousands of tasbeehs in a day and hundreds of rakaats of Nafl (optional) Salaah, and also keep plenty of Nafl fasts. Like it takes a minimum amount of time to cook a meal in our times, it takes even less that this to become a wali of Allah : a person makes taubah from all sins and then abstains from everything Haraam and displeasing to Allah Ta’ala and fulfils all the Rights of Allah Ta’ala, His Rasul (Peace be upon Him) and creation.
  • I said : “It is extremely simple. It takes just one minute to become a Wali. Raise your hands and with deep regret and remorse in your heart, shed a few tears and pray to Allah : ‘O Allah, I have wasted my life, but I want to become Your Wali; I want to become your friend. So forgive all the sins which I have committed since maturity, and grant me the Towfeeq to do that which pleases You in my future life.’

You have immediately become a Wali. Now make an effort towards fulfilling those rights which had been violated.

The effort made indicates to the sincerity of your taubah.”

  • Dua

   O Allah Bless us with Aml, Ikhlaas and Maqbooliyat.

   O Allah, forgive us our past sins and give us the courage to restrain ourselves from

  indulging in any form of disobedience to You in the future.

 O Allah, bless us with the purification of our hearts, from greed, pride, malice, insincerity,

 show, anger, envy and jealousy.

 O Allah, bless us all with the best in dunya and Aakhirat.

 O Allah, fill our hearts with YOur love and love of Rasulullah (Peace be upon Him)

 O Allah, bless us with such a bond with You that nafs and Shaytaan cannot distance us

 from You.

 O Allah, protect is, as well as the entire Ummah, from all the fitnahs that are lashing at us

 from all sides.

  O Allah, forgive all those who have passed away. And when our time of death arrives then let it be in a state of Imaan, and at a time when You are pleased with us.

 O Allah, we ask of You all the goodness which had been asked for, by Your Messenger, Muhammad (Peace be upon Him); and we seek your protection from all evil things from which Your Messenger, Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) had asked protection from; only You are capable of helping us. (Aameen)

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Hedayatus Saalikeen

(Guidance for the Seekers of Allah Ta’ala)

Selected Quotes

From the discourses of:

Hazrat Moulana Yunus Patel 

  • The weakness of all those who are drowning in the ocean of illicit love is that they have given theirs hearts to bodies which are going to turn to dust. Instead of giving their hearts to the Creator of Hearts, they have given their hearts to faces, the beauty of which will inevitably be lost with the passage of time or with illness.
  • Nafs and Shaytaan , for whose pleasure we commit so many sins, will not be of any assistance when Izraeel  (A.S.) will strike the sword of Death. Can we expect help from avowed enemies? No! Therefore, let us act intelligently by befriending Allah Ta’ala and His Beloved Messenger, Sayyedena Muhammad (PEace be upon Him).
  • Most of the love and friendship expressed these days is nothing but politics and diplomacy, cheat, deceit and hypocrisy. Befriend a person for the pleasure of Allah and for the sake of Deen. This friendship, which is not for material benefit, will not only last until death, but will even continue into Jannat (Paradise).
  • Inspite of severe suffering, persecution and torture, not a single Sahabi (companion) of Rasulullah (Peace be upon Him) nor a single Wali (friend) of Allah Ta’ala, throughout history, ever committed suicide. Their rituals were borne with patience, perseverance and fortitude which strengthened their Imaan  (faith) in Allah.
  • If there is a heavy mist on the windscreens of our cars, then we de-mist those windscreens when driving. If we do not do so, then we are liable to meet with an accident. In a like manner, when our hearts become misted with sins, with evil desires and passions, it becomes necessary to de-mist our hearts with Tawbah and Istighfaar (Repentance).
  • If we do not de-mist our hearts of evils like malice, greed, pride, jealousy, anger etc., then we will always be causing ‘accidents’  in society. The easiest way to obtain purification of the heart and soul is to spend time in the company of the Ahlullah (the people of Allah) – those who have already purified themselves.
  • How concerned we would become if our beloved child had to take poison? We would immediately rush him to the doctor to remove that poison. Yet, when we or our children presistently commit sins and when we deliberately imbibe ourselves with spiritual poison, we show no concern whatsoever. Whereas poison in the body results in only the death of that body, persistent sinning results in the death of one’s Imaan. And the death of one’s Imaan would mean perpetual disaster.
  • We have to act responsibility for our own benefit and that of our children and remove the ‘Dajjal’ box from our homes. How can we justify this by saying that there are some good programmes when the major content is highly immoral, explicit and Haraam? Even in alcahol and gambling there is a little benefit to be found. Can we declare it ‘Halaal’ ?
  • When a person talks about something excessively, then know that the love of that thing has entered his or her heart. The one who talks excessively about fast cars, fashionable clothes, pretty women, handsome men, multi-storey buildings, palaces gold and silver and oil wealth,then know that the love of these things has entered that heart.
  • The toilet is a necessity, and some homes have beautiful toilets; some even have gold taps etc. But what would you think of one who talks excessively about his toilet? Just like the toilet, the things things of this world are necessities – we, therefore, don’t make the material things of this world objects of worship.
  • The slavery of one’s selfish desire, the Nafs and that of Shaitaan chains one to misery and disaster. This slavery makes one’s life ‘tight’ and narrowed. The slavery of Allah is such a Ni’mat, which in reality, grants one freedom from misery.
  • Each group of “Haq” (Truth), whether engaged in Madrassahs, Darul Ulooms, Khanqahs, Jihad, Tabligh or Welfare, should consider the others as supplementary and complementary and as an assistance to one another. No group should consider the other as an opposition. All parts of the aeroplane engine are required to fly the plane. The Defence Force of a country requires military, airforce, navy, foot soldiers, commanders, transport operators, computer attendants, pilots etc. to fortify and defend the country’s borders.
  • No government forces the Muslims to indulge in adultery, gambling, drinking, consuming interest, watching evil and immoral TV programmes, reading filthy literature, etc. No one imposes upon us to emulate the Kuffaar in dress and culture or to organise our marriages and engagement parties in the pattern of the West.
  • My Sheikh always says that every man should consider his own wife, no matter what her age or looks, to be his Laila, meaning, his Beloved. If he is going to look at someone else’s wife (or any ‘Ghair Mahram’ woman), then he will soon have o take Valium Five. In other words, instead of enjoying peace, he will experience a heart filled with restlessness and anxiety.
  • My Sheikh, Hazrat Moulana Hakeem Muhammad Akhtar Saheb, was once questioned, that if a person looks at his parents with love and affection, then according to a Hadith, he gets the reward of a Maqbool (accepted) Nafl Haj. What then would be the reward for a person who looks at his Sheikh (spiritual guide) with love and affection? Hazrat replied: “he will get Allah Ta’ala Himself, as the reward.” The reason for this is that a true sincere Mureed (disciple) of a sheikh only loves and befriends his sheikh to receive Allah Ta’ala in his heart.
  • Do not go buy the book of ‘My RIghts’. Go byt the book of Love, Ihsaan and Khidmat. In other words, if every person goes out of his or her way to fulfil the rights of others, instead of demanding his or her own rights, or goes a step further that just fulfilment of rights, ie. he or she goes out of his or her way to be kind, caring, loving and forgiving, then automatically this world will become a paradise.
  •  The unfortunate part is that the husband opens the chapter of his rights and the wife opens the chapter of her rights. The parents open the chapter of their rights and the children, of their rights. The teacher, his rights and the pupils, their rights, and then everyone demands fulfilment of these rights. No doubt, rights have been declared so that no person should stop short of their fulfilment, but you cannot have a peaceful society if there is just demand for rights and no fulfilment of the corresponding obligations.
  • Even parents should not beat up their children in anger, for they too would sometimes regret, all their lives, the damage done. Teachers, as well, should not make a decision of punishment in anger. Since the expression of anger is from Shaitaan, one has to be wary in not succumbing to it.
  • The heart is the King of the body. one can imagine the salary which has to be paid to employ a King as a labourer. When a person restrains himself from indulging in Haraam, eg. casting lustful glances, watching videos and Television programmes in a home infested with such things, then a pain will come onto the heart. When this pain and weight comes onto that heart which is sacrificing those evil desires for the Pleasure of Allah, then Allah, the King of Kings and the Creator of the heart, will pay that heart. He will grant that heart the sweetness of Imaan, the taste of which will be experienced therein, and He will imbue that heart with satisfaction and peace. Of course, this does not happen by restraining oneself once or twice and then indulging in one’s evil desires a dozen times. This effort has to continue throughout one’s life. Allah Ta’ala states: “And serve your Lord, until there comes unto you the hour that is Certain. (ie. Death)” (Surah Al-Hijr: 99)
  • Our Muslim names, Islamic dress and our prayers are like the sign board found outside a shop which informs us that inside this shop, sweets, chocolates, biscuits, cakes, fruit etc. are stocked and sold. The person reading the sign board thus expects to find what has been advertised outside, inside that shop. What would be the reaction of the person if he or she finds cow dung, horse manure and cat’s droppings inside, instead of sweets and chocolates? In a similar vein, our beautiful Muslim names and Islamic garb informs others that inside our hearts there is a certain ‘merchandise’ in the form of firm Imaan in Allah Ta’ala and love for His beloved Rasool (Peace be upon Him). One expects to find therein the attributes of trustworthiness, honesty, sincerity, forgiveness, charity, Taqwa (piety), Zuhd (asceticism), Sabr (patience), Shukr (gratitude) etc. These are the qualities and traits a person expects to find in his social dealings with us. Our beards, kurtas, turbans, tasbeehs, the cloak, purdah etc. are all additional signs which lay more and more emphasis on the above. What would be a person’s reaction when instead of these virtues he or she finds arrogance, pride, malice, greed, jealousy etc. ?
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Sufism & Good Character

By

Imam Zafar Uthmani

Translated by Faraz F. Rabbani

  • The Prophet (Peace be upon Him) said, “On the Day of Resurrection, nothing will weigh heavier upon the Scales than good character” (Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi).
  • North African Sufi, Shaykh Ahmad Zarruq, gave the clearest and most complete definition of Sufism. He said it is “sincerity in turning to Allah,”…
  • He who practices sufism without learning Sacred Law corrupts his faith, while he who learns Sacred Law without practicing Sufism corrupts himself. Only he who combines the two proves true (Iqaz al-Himam fi Sharh al Hikam, 5-6; from The reliance of the Traveler, w9-3, 862).
  • It took Imam Zafar roughly twenty years to author the eighteen large volumes of the I’la al-Sunan. He also wrote a two-volume preface and added a volume in which he compiled detailed biographies of Imam Abu Hanifa, his students, and the scholars of the Hanafi school…
  • When the subcontinent gained independence and India was divided, he moved to Pakistan and became head-teacher at Dar al-Ulum, Hyderabad, Sind, benefiting students with his speech, spiritual state, and righteous works.
  • Today in the Islamic lands, this title is generally applied not to the one drawn near to Allah, but rather to those who cling to certain outward manners and forms. Moreover, how many people close to Allah in the lands are not known as sufis, simply because they do not adorn themselves in the garb of the Sufis?
  • It thus became clear to scholars who seek the next life that the path to divine knowledge and stations of proximity is closed off except to those who possess renunciation (Zuhd) and piety (taqwa)…
  • When Abu Muhammad al-Hariri was asked about Sufism, he replied, “it is entering into every high trait, and leaving every low trait,” as mentioned in Suhurwardi’s al Ma’arif.
  • Nawwas Ibn Sam’an (May Allah be pleased with Him) reported that, I asked the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) about righteousness (birr) and sin. He replied, “righteousness is good character, and sin is that which wavers in your soul and you loathe to have people uncover” (Muslim).
  • Abu Hurayra (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said, Look at those below you, and look not at those above you, for it is closer to not denying the blessings of Allah upon you (Bukhari and Muslim).
  • It is reported by Ibn Mas’ud (May Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, If you are three, let not two of you converse without including the third, until othersjoin you, for that saddens the third one (Bukhari and Muslim; the words are from Muslim’s narration).
  • … Hasan (al-Basri) said, “Why look you thus at my garments? They are the garments of the people o the Garden. And your rags are the garments of the people of the Fire. It has reached me that most of the people of the Fire wear rags.” Then he added, “They (the people of the fire) limited renunciation (Zuhd) to their clothing and left arrogance (kibr) in their hearts.”
  • This (to dress well) is the chosen practice of the Naqshabandis, Shadhilis, and Bakris, for they did not limit themselves to any particular dress…
  • Mughira ibn Shu’ba (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, Allah forbids that you treat your mothers badly; that you kill your baby daughters; or not give while asking others. He dislikes that you talk needlessly, ask too many questions, or waste money (Bukhari and Muslim).
  • The reality of scrupulousness (wara’) is explained by the Prophet (Peace be upon Him) saying, “He who avoids the doubtful has kept his religion and honor clear,”…
  • It is well known that renunciation (Zuhd) is the first step of the noble Sufis on the path of drawing near to Allah, and they are the people most avidly concerned with renunciation. Knowing that renunciation is not possible except in a sound heart, they engage in the most intense of spiritual struggles until they attain unto it, and thereby reach their desired goal.
  • Abu Hurayra (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, Wretched is the slave to dirhams and dinars and lavish clothing. If given, he is content; if not, he is not (Bukhari).
  • Allah’s saying, “And among mankind is he who worships Allah upon a narrow brink, so that if good befalls him he is content therewith, but if a trial befalls him, he falls away utterly. [He loses both the world and the Hereafter. That is the sheer loss]” (Qur’an 22:11)
  • And whoever is a slave to his whims is not honest when he says, “Thee (alone) we worship; Thee (alone) we ask for help” (Qur’an, 1:4). Curbing whims, avarice, and greed is the first step of the people of renunciation (Zahidin), and the noble Sufis are the most concerned of people regarding this. And whoever curbs his whims will “be in the world as a stranger, or a passer-by.”
  • Sa’d ibn Waqqas (May Allah be pleased with him) relates a hadith with the words: He Said, “counsel me,” so [the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him)] replied, “Despair of that which is in the hands of people, and beware of avarice [tama] for it is instant poverty’ (Bayhaqi and Hakim; it is rigorously authenticated [sahih]).
  • Sa’d ibn Waqqas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that, I heard the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon HIm) say, “verily, Allah loves the god-fearing, rich, unknown servant” (Muslim).
  • Abu Hurayra (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, From the excellence of a man’s Islam is leaving that whichdoes not concern him” (Tirmidhi. it is authentic [hasan]).
  • Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah be pleased with Him) said, Silence is wisdom, though few are silent (Bayhaqi, with a weak chain; he deemed it to be the words of Luqman the Wise).
  • Whoever thinks they can achieve this through mere knowledge and the study of books has erred and gone far astray. Just as (outward) knowledge is only acquired through study with scholars, good character is acquired by struggling to attain it at the hands of the knowers of Allah.
  • Base character is a lethal poison, a fatal destroyer, and a humiliating debaser – manifest vileness, and filth that distances one from the sanctuary of the Lord of the worlds. It makes the one characterised by it of the devils, and it is open door to the burning for of Allah, that “Leaps up other hand, is the open door to the bounties of the Gardens and proximity to the Merciful.
  • How can it not be possible to change the behaviour of humans, when it is clear that is it possible to change the behaviour of animals such as eagles, dogs, and horses by training?
  • How can it be desirable to uproot passion and anger completely when without anger, jihad would not be possible? How can it be a goal when the Prophets (Allah bless them and give them peace) were characterised by them? For our Prophet (Peace be upon Him) said, I am a human, and I get angry as humans do” (Ahmad, and Muslim with similar wording).
  • Our Prophet (Peace be upon Him) would get so angry his cheeks would redden. However, he would not speak other than the truth…
  • Allah Most High said, “Those who control their anger and are forgiving towards people; Allah loves the good” (Qur’an 3:134). Allah did not say, “Those bereft of anger.”
  • One who wishes to become generous, for example, should force himself (yatakallaf) to act as a generous person would, by spending money. Then one constantly struggles with oneself by giving until it becomes naturally easy to give, and one becomes generous by nature. Likewise, one who wishes to become characterised by humility (tawadu) after arrogance (kibr) was preponderant, should force himself to perform the actions of the humble for a while, struggling with his lower self, until it becomes a character trait and these actions become easy.
  • The basis of this entire chapter is the word of Allah Most High, “He is indeed successful who purifies it [the heart or lower self], and he is indeed a failure who stunts it” (Qur’an 91:9-10).
  • Abu Hurayra (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, ‘Beware of envy (hasad), for it consumes good works as fire consumes wood’ (Abu Dawud and others, with good chains).
  • Abu Hurayra (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, ‘The strong man is not the one who physically overcomes others. Nay. strong is the one who can control himself when angry (Bukhari  and Muslim).
  • Mahmud ibn Labid (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, ‘What I fear for you most is the lesser polytheism, namely, showing-off in spiritual works (riya) (Ahmad)
  • Abu Hurayra also reported that a man asked, “O Messenger of Allah. councel me.” He (Peace be upon Him) said, “Do not become angry” (Bukhari).
  • It is reported by Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, Do not quarrel with your brother, nor jext with him. And do not make an appointment with him and then break it (Tirmidhi).
  • It is reported by Abu L-Darda (May Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, Allah hates the obscene and wasteful (Tirmidhi).
  • It is reported by Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon Him) said, “Two traits are not found together in a believer; stinginess and bad character” (Tirmidhi).
  • It is reported by Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon HIm) said, glad tidings to the one busied by his own faults from the faults of others (Bazzar).
  • Abdullah ibn Abbas reports, as narrated in Bukhari in al-adab [al-Mufrad], that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, “I fyou are eager to know your companion’s faults, then look first at your own faults”.
  • Sahl ibn Sa’d (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, “Haste is from Satan (Tirmidhi)
  • Mus’ab reported this from his father with the words: Deliberation is good in all things except in matters of the Next life (Abu Dawud, and Hakim).
  • Mu’adh ibn Jabal (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, “Whoever scolds his brother for a sin[he did in the past] shall not die until he does it (Tirmidhi).
  • Abu L-Darda (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, “Nothing weighs heavier upont he scales than good character” (Abu Dawud, and Tirmidhi).
  • IT is reported by Abu Hurayra (May Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, “You cannot reach all people with your wealth, so let your smiling face and good character reach them (Abu Ya’la; Hakim deemed it rigorously authenticated [sahih]).
  • It is reported by Abu ‘L-Darda (May Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, “ Whoever protects the honour of his brother in his absence, Allah protects his face from the fire on the Day of Resurrection (TIrmidhi).
  • Knowledge of Allah is not possible except by constant comtemplation (fikr) of His attributes and actions, for there is nothing in existence except Allah most High and His actions.
  • Remembrance of Allah is the strongest means to acts of obedience and good character, and the firmest deterrent against sins, bad deeds, and base character. For remembrance of Allah is light, and what light! By it hearts find rest, breasts are expanded, and continue to expand by acts of obedience, just as this light contracts and constricts by sins and bad deeds.
  • The outward semblance of the Sufis, such as listening to spiritual poetry (sama), celebrations, gatherings, and the like, are not of central importance, however. Shaykh Shah Wali Allah (al-Dehlawi) said, “The spiritual ascription of the Sufis is a great bounty. As for their outward semblance, it is of little weight.”
  • Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud relate with a sound chain from Bilal ibn Yasar in Zayd, from his father, from his grandfather, that he heard the Prophet (Peace be upon Him) say, Whoever says, “I seek the forgiveness of Allah, there is no god but Him, the living the self-subsistent, and I repent to him,” is forgiven, even if he has fled from the front-lines.
  • In the Indian subcontinent, they were critical of the Hanafi school, and claimed it was far from the primary texts. It was in response to such accusations that Imam Zafar ‘Uthmani authored his work, which contains over 6123 hadiths, and copious commentary, as proofs for the soundness of the positions of the Hanafi School, which remains the largest of the four orthodox schools of Sacred Law.
  • The author is making a general statement, for the exceptions are plenty. His very own uncle and spiritual guide, Imam Ashraf ‘Ali al-Thanawi, for example, was famous as a sufi.
  • Our master ‘Umar (May Allah be pleased with Him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, “The best of actions is to bring happiness to the heart of the believer” (Tirmidhi).
  • Imam Muhammad ‘Ali al-Thanawi, who is not related tot he author, warned that “When a seeker (murid) thinks he has found a spiritual guide, it is incumbent upon him to be cautious and exert his utmost effort in finding out whether the guide is fit to be a Shaykh or not. Many seekers have been misled and have perished in this area [by following would-be guides]; rather, most of humanity has been led astray and has perished by following misguided leaders. The proper way, then, is to carefully examine whether the spiritual way (tariq) and the higher realities (haqiqa). If he is an innovator, this can be known by what [learned] people say about him, and by the conduct of those who follow and love him without correcting him. If the seeker finds out that the scholars of the time are not critical of this spiritual guide, and that some scholars and notables, young or old, take him as a guide and tun to him in their search for the spiritual way and higher realities, then he will know that such a spiritual guide is worthy of being followed” (Kashshaf Istilahat al-Funun 1:1050).
  • At the same time, one must be highly cautious of false would-be Sufis. These are common, and their most frequent sign is laxity (or, even more dangerous, complete disregard) towards the Shari’a. Sufis have long warned against such pretenders. Ramdan effendi says, for example, “The most harmful of things to people are: keeping the company of a scholar who is heedless of Allah or an ignorant sufi” (Sharh al-Tariqa al-Muhammadiyya 1:31).
  • This means that nothing has absolute independent existence except Allah Most High. Everything besides Allah is from His actions.
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                                          pastedGraphic.pdf

 

 

The Ramadan of 

Shaikh Al-Hadith

Muhammad Zakariyya

and our Elders

—–

Dr. Mohammad Ismail Memon Madani

  •  Though their whole lives were already dedicated to the work of Din (religion), whether through the teaching of hadith, tabligh (propagation of Din), teaching in traditional religious schools, or giving talks, all such work came to a halt in the month of Ramadan and they devoted themselves solely to prayers and remembrance of Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He).
  •  Every Muslim should perform I’tikaf the last ten days of ramadan at least once in a lifetime, if not every year. In I’tikaf the withdrawal from the material world and seclusion in the house of Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) offers the opportunity for a Muslim with the weakest of Iman and the worst of characters to reconnect with Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He).
  •  Faid is the spiritual light that descends from Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) and tranfers through the shaikh’s heart into the murid. Shaikh Khalil Ahmad stated that the example of the faid of the shaikh is like a faucet. Though water pours from the faucet the source of this water is the reservoir. Likewise, the shaikh is a channel for the faid while the source of this faid is Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He). The more one benefits from this shaikh the more faid he gains just as the more one opens the faucet the more water that pours out.
  •  Maulana Ashraf ‘Ali Thanwi – Though, he was most known for reviving true tasawwuf and clearing away the customs and erroneous beliefs that had come to be associated with it. Hundreds of his talks (muwa’iz) and sayings (malfuzat) are preserved in books.
  •  The Blessed Prophet (Peace be upon Him) performed i’tikaf throughout his life. In this particular year, he performed i’tikaf the whole month and then for twenty days in the last year of his life. But since his continuous habit was i’tikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan, the scholars sat that only the last ten days of i’tikaf is an emphasised Sunna (Sunna mu’akkada)
  •  Shaikh al-Hadith (Shaikh Zakariyya) compiled daily routines of the elders in the month of Ramadan and published it under the name “Ramadan of the Elders’.” I thought it would be best to include his own devotions in the month of Ramadan in this booklet.
  • I cannot end this note without mention of my sons Shaikh Mansur, Shaikh Ibrahim and Mufti Husain, and my sincere friend Shaikh ‘Abd al-Mu’izz…
  •  Shaikh Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali Nadwi devoted a chapter in his book “The biography of Hadrat” entitled “The importance of Ramadan and the devotions of Ramadan in Hadrat Shaikh’s life”
  • It is unfortunate that there is virtually no documentation about the way of the life in the khanqas of Hadrat Khawaja Nizam al-Din Auliya’ from the 8th century of Hadrat Shah Ghulam ‘Ali Dehlawi from the 13th century.
  •  …We are able to capture some glimpses of how Ramadan was celebrated in Fawa’id al-Fu’ad, Siyar al-Auliya and Durr al-Marif. 
  • Shaikh Madani…His students and devotees arrived from every part of the subcontinent to Silhat [Bangladesh], where he spent many of his Ramadan. After that, he spent a few Ramadan in Bans Kandi [U.P. India] and then one or two years in his hometown of Daudpura, district of Faizabad [U.P. India].
  •  They isolated themselves from the material world and gathered in a remote village that was without a paved road or a railway station leading to the outside world in order to devote their days and nights to dhikr, ashgal, and recitation of Qur’an.They spent all their time in worship of Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) from the first day of Ramadan until the last.
  • ..to talk to him was completely out of the question, especially when it was his routine to finish one Qur’an plus a little more every day (in case Ramadan was 29 days).
  • “Hadrat is busy at this time and will talk to no one until Ramadan is over.”… When he finally got the opportunity to see the Shaikh he said, “Oh brother, al-salamu ‘aleikum, I only  wish to say that, by the grace of Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He), Ramadan comes upon us too, but not so feverishly. al-salamu ‘aleikum, I am going.”
  •  He spent many years in seclusion, praying long voluntary salat and meditating (muraqaba). Once, while in Madina he decided to settle down there permanently. He went to the blessed grave of the Blessed Prophet (Peace be upon Him) and was told to go back to India because Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) wanted to take some work of Din from him. He returned to India and started Tablighi Jama’a.
  • Routine in Ramadan 1366/1947 – I’tikaf the whole month, one Qur’an plus little extra every day, broke fast with one Madani date, one cup of tea, and one pan, after Isha and tarawee ate guava, bananas, phulkian (type of snack), Fajr was prayed at the earliest time..and after that he rested short while and awoke when the day began. This was the only time of day in which he slept; the remainder of the day was spent reciting the Qur’an.
  • In Ramadan of 1349/1931 in Nizam al-Din, Hadrat wrote Fada’il-e-Ramadan, which he completed on the 27th of Ramadan.
  • Hadrat spent 40 years of Ramadan in Saharanpur.
  • His meetings, letter-writing, and correspondence with the muridin were terminated until the end of Ramadan, all his time being spent reciting Qur’an. From Ramadan of 1338/1920, he made the habit of staying awake the nights of Ramadan, a difficult devotion which continued until the last years when he became extremely sick.
  •  I made it my habit to stay awake in the nights of Ramadan and have only discontinued this practice in the last few years due to prolonged sickness. I adopted this practice from the Arabs, who stayed awake in the nights of Ramadan.
  •  After he prayed Isha in the masjid, he returned home and led the women in tarawih, in which he again recited many parts of the Qur’an.
  • Reciation of 30 to 35 parts per day was his routine.
  • It is known that Imam Abu Hanifa completed 61 Qur’an in Ramadan; one in the day, one at night and one in tarawih. Likewise, it is said of Imam shafi’i that he completed 60 Qur’an every Ramadan. Once, Hadrat encouraged his murids and devotees to do the same.
  • He Said: Once I wrote to some of my friends and asked them to finish reciting 60 Qur’an in one Ramadan. Many of my friends strived to reach that goal. Maulwi In’am finished 61 Qur’an, one did 56 and some did 60.
  • Some people insisted on staying in Saharanpur with Hadrat, who advised them to spend all their time in the masjid, except for the gathering after Isha with Hadrat, which was the only opprtunity they had to meet with hadrat in the day.
  •  Hadrat’s friend barged up the stairs in protest and as he reached the top stair, he yelled out, “Brother Ji! al-Salamu ‘alaikum! I won’t say much but, by the grace of Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) Ramadan comes up on us also, but not so feverishly.”
  • No space in old masjid….but they insisted they wanted to perform i’tikaf here only. Finally, it was decided they would alternate in performing i’tikaf with me.
  • 1384 My routine runs as follows:

In voluntary salat after Maghrib : 8 parts

After Tarawih before tea : one part

In Tahajjud [nightly salat] : 10 parts

In pre-noon Salat [dhuha] : 6 parts

In Sunna of Dhuhr : 3 parts

Salat of tasbih : 2 parts

Reciting in the Qur’an after salat of tasbih ; 2 parts

Reciting to Yahya after ‘Asr : 3 parts

Combined : 35 parts

  •  That year, forty people made intention to perform i’tikaf for the whole month of Ramadan. This gathering increased to 313 people by the end of Ramadan.
  •  Hadrat was usually praying voluntary salat when people woke up for sehr. He ate two eggs and drank one cup tea shortly before the fast started….after salat, he rested until about 9 a.m. then woke up, attended to his personal needs, and prayed voluntary salat until noon. He read and responded to any urgent letters until the adhan of Zuhr. After adhan, he prayed Sunna and then busied himself in recitation immediately after Zuhr until ‘Asr, during which time guests were advised to perform the dhikr of Allah. those with permission to perform dhikr began whilst others recited Qur’an until ‘Asr. After ‘Asr Hadrat recited the Qur’an Hadrat recited Qur’an aloud while most guests either listened or recited their own Qur’an. This went on until it was time to break fast. A few minutes before iftar everyone went into mediation. Hadrat broke his fasts with one Madani date and a cup of Zamzam water. He then either went into meditation or sat against the wall. After magrib, the guests were given food and Hadrat started his voluntary salat. Around half an hour before adhan, he ate one or two eggs and drank a cup of tea.Initially, he refused to eat or drink anything but after much urging [one week after Ramadan] Hadrat agreed…he never ate rice or bread or any other staple diet throughout the month of ramadan or even on the last day of Sha’ban.
  • The reading session became a part of the daily program after tarawih, which replaced the earlier gatherings of iftar [in the previous Ramadan] when people sat and had snacks in Hadrat’s company. Hadrat commented about these gatherings that, “it is a waste of time”. After the reading session, Hadrat would say, “Brothers, go and value your time”. Therefore most were seen either in recitation or salat while Hadrat busied himself in worship.
  • Hadrat recited 32 parts of Qur’an daily.

1385/1966 daily routine:

Six parts after Magrib

Approximately three parts during tarawih

Reading session of a book of  Fada’il  until 12a.m.

Sleep for three and a half hours

Six parts in tahajjud

Pray Fajr in its earliest time then sleep until 9:30 a.m.

Six parts in pre-noon salat

Letter reading and writing until Zuhr

Three parts in the Sunna of Zuhr

Eight parts reading in the Qur’an after Zuhr

After ‘Asr, recite to Yahya

Combined: 35 parts

On average : 32 parts

  •  1386/1966…The number of people in i’tikaf increased with time to over 400 people by the end of Ramadan.
  •  From the 23rd to 28th of Ramadan, approximately 315 people were tallied on the mats [at the time of Fajr]. Everyone else who could not find space in masjid ate with Maulwi Nasir al-Din
  • Talking was strictly forbidden and a bulletin cleary stated: Those who come here should not talk. If you wish you may sleep or sit quietly but do not talk under any circumstances.
  •  After ‘Asr, the book [on tasawwuf] Imdad al’Suluk was read followed by two small booklets, one of them by Imam Suyuti. Once they were completed, Itmam al-Ni’am [Translation of Tabwib al-Hakim] and then Ikmal al-Shiyam [commentary of Ithmam al’Ni’am] were read.
  • Hadrat said “ I do not accept bai’a of anyone who has already taken bai’a with Shaykh Husain Ahmad Madani or Shaikh ‘Abd al’Qadir Raipuri. Their bai’a is my bai’a; therefore, if you have any questions, just ask”.
  • Hadrat also asked Abu al-Hasan to show mw the place where he [Hadrat] performed i’tikaf during the month of Ramadan. After this, I left Saharanpur with the firm intention to return the next year to perform i’tikaf with Hadrat for the whole month of Ramadan.
  • 1387…He shook and trembled. Then everyone moved forward one by one to hug him. Hadrat remained in this state [crying] the whole day. He cried profusely and said repeatedly, “Look! These people left the Blessed Precincts [Makka and Madina] to visit me” and cried as he spoke. He remained in this state throughout the night.
  • A woman fro Hadrat’s family saw Blessed Prophet (Peace be upon Him) in her dream”Tell sheikh al-Hadith that two of my special guests are coming. Make sure you take care of them”.
  • Hadrat declined to recite na’at saying “This is how innovations [bid’a] are born. The purpose of these gatherings [where na’at were chanted and dhikr was held] was good in the beginning. When a sheikh passed away, his successors and devotees would come together and say, ‘when shaikh was alivewe gathered here [at the sheikh’s khanqa], but how will we come together now? They finally agreed to meet once a year, but were still undecided as to when and where. They decided the best place to hold their annual gathering would be by the shaikh’s grave, and the best time, the day the Shaikh passed away since no one would ever forget that date. This was the beginning of these festivals [urs], but look at them now?”
  • But as time passed these gatherings became festivals that bred innovations and pagan customs [shirk]
  •  His na’ats are beautiful, maybe he should chant something in the gathering.” Hadrat replied , “No my brother, no.”
  •  The method of Ikhatm-e-khawajagan is as follows:

First, one recites salat and salam three times.

Recite لا حول و لاقوة الا بالله لا ملجا ولامنجا من الله الا اليه counting each reading on a seed

Recite Surat al- Inshirah counting each reading on a seed.

Repeat لا حول و لاقوة الا با لله لا ملجا ولامنجا من الله الا اليه, each reading counted on a seed.

Complete the khatm with salat and salam three times.

Isha salat, tarawih and witr take about a 1 1/2 hour and one Qur’an is completed every ten days.

  •  1394 – Wake up 3 a.m. for sehr and guests usually finish eating and drinking tea by 4:30a.m.
  • It is said that there are about 650 guests in i’tikaf this year (this rose to 1200 in the last ten days). Fajr is prayed in its earliest time and then all guests rest until 8:30 or 9 a.m. As the rule was that no one was allowed to wake anyone up except for salat time, the guests could sleep for as much and for as long as they liked.
  •  1395 – approx. 1000 people from beginning and numbers grew until the end. There were estimated 2700 people on the 27th night. Because of the crowd, both levels of the masjid and both the covered and uncovered areas of the courtyard had reached full capacity. As a result, it was difficult to go for ablution and to the bathroom for the place of i’tikaf.
  •  On this night, some people observed an estimated 27 huffaz deeply engrossed in recitation of Qur’an and rows upon rows standing behind them seeking the mercy of Allah (azza wajjal) and regue from the Hellfire. One of these huffaz can never be forgotten. He was engrossed in salat. He was trembling, shaking, and crying and humbleness was clearly evident in his recitation.
  •  1394 program:

Talk at 2 a.m. for approx 1 hour

Khatm-e-khawajagan followed by the gathering of dhikr from Zhur to Asr

              Ikmal al-Shiyam and Irshad al-Muluk after Asr

An hour of voluntary salat after Maghrib then dinner

Meeting newcomers and locals until adhan of Isha

Hadrat stayed in the masjid for many days after Eid in order to meet the large number of people who had come for i’tikaf

  •  In his letter to me [Dr. Isma’il Memon] dated February 24, 1976, he writes:                                                                                                                                 You are probably aware that for the years I have been asking Maulwi Munawwar Husain, Mufti Mahmud and close friends                                  whether there is more benefit or harm in this festival?
  •  1396…Reading sessions of Fada’il-e-Ramadan after tarawih was cancelled this year because of a law that permitted the authorities to seize any man found after 11:30 p.m. to be sterilized. This law has been in full force for the past year; Muslims are distraught and are facing the repercussions of their bad deeds.
  •  Fada’il-e-Ramadan until 12 p.m.
  • Meeting with people until 1 p.m. and resting from 1 p.m. to 3 p.m.
  • Everyone wakes at about 2:30 a.m. for sehr; after Sehr and attending to their personal needs they recite Qur’an until 4 a.m. Because of weakness, I recited one instead of two parts which I completed with great difficulty
  • Sehr at 4 a.m. and Fajr immediately after dawn
  • Meet newcomers then rest until 9a.m.
  • Then, say one part to someone instead of reciting in the Qur’an
  • Then pre-noon salat, salat al-haja, and tahiyyat al-shukr until eleven
  • Rest from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m.
  • One part in the sunnas
  • Khatm-e-Khawajagan after Zuhr
  • Gathering of dhikr at 4:30 p.m.
  • Adhan of ‘Asr, then ‘Asr at 5:30 p.m.
  • After ‘Asr: reading session of Irshad al-Muluk until iftar
  • This year, Shaikh Balyawi’s talk was from 10 a.m. to 11 a.m.
  • Shaikh Balyawi gave the talks the previous Ramadan but fell sick. Shaikh ‘Abd al-Halim took his place but was later dismissed when he became overzealous and started criticising  the schools and khanqas.
  • The gatherings from Maghrib to the adhan of ‘Isha were cancelled but for discussion and meetings with the scholars regarding different methods of increasing funds for the schools and exhorting them to eliminate hostilities amongst themselves.
  •  Hadrat made a point of keeping his ablution and fast at every station of his journey in Saharanpur, Delhi, Jeddah, Makka and Madina.
  •  We were told that the custom was to fire shots to inform everyone of the start of Ramadan and that tarawih would begin half an hour after Isha. Despite that, when we rushed to the blessed precinct after attending our personal needs and ablution, we found we had already missed two rakah of tarawih. The tradition is both the blessed precincts is that two huffaz lead the tarawih, each reciting half a part of Qur’an. After tarawih and dinner it was my habit that I would go to Tan’im (for ‘umrah) and perform one ‘umrah every day. Sometimes I would be accompanied by ‘Ali Mian, but he usually performed his ‘umra during the day. I stayed in Makka for fifteen days and departed for Madina on Wednesday 24th November (15th of Ramadan).
  •  After Isha and tarawih, he returned to Madrasa Saulatiyya, attended to his needs and performed ablution. He then sat in the car to go to Tan’im and perform his ‘umra. The muridin and others also followed Hadrat to perform their ‘umra.
  •  On the 20th Ramadan adter ‘Asr, he moved in with helpers to al-Masjid al-Nabawiyy for the last 10 days of i’tikaf. Besides the Indians and Pakistanis, hundreds of people joined Hadrat in i’tikaf from South Africa, England, and many other countries.
  •  1393 – Hadrat migrated to Saudi Arabia. As his intentions were pure and noble, Allah (azza wajjal) opened the doors for him to obtain a visa (iqama) and citizenship shortly thereafter.
  •  This year he was told to spend Ramadan in the Blessed Precincts.
  • Hadrat stayed the whole month in Madina, residing in the ground floor of Madrasa al’Ulum al-Shar’ia (as he always did whenever he stayed in Madina).
  •  Tarawih was held in Madrasa al ‘Ulum al Shar’ia and led by Shaikh Muhammad Ghardi Afriqi and Hafiz Zubair.
  •  1400 Pakistan…For some time, it has been the routine of Qutb al-Aqtab (pole of guidance), Barakat al-Asr (blessing of the Age), Hadrat al-Shaikh al-Hajj al-Hafiz Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhelwi Madani [who incorporated the nisba (spiritual closeness to Allah azza Wajjal) of all the shaikhs of his time] to perform i’tikaaf the whole month of Ramadan.
  •  Aside from the hundreds of daily visitors and those that sat for i’tikaf for less then ten days, approximately two hundred people sat from the beginning of Ramadan and five hundred in the last ten days.
  •  The gatherings were overwhelmed by love (of Allah azza wajjal). At the end time, I wished from the bottom of my heart that the whole world could gather here and hoard this treasure of boundless blessings.
  •  On Hadrat’s request, du’a was always made for the protection of the Blessed Precincts against all evils. After du’a, Shaikh recited forty hadith of salat and salam…
  •  After sehr ended, the adhan of Fajr was called and ten minutes later Fajr salat began, during which the imam recited the qunut nazila with special du’as for the protection of the Blessed Precincts.
  •  The adhan of Zuhr was called at 2 p.m. and salat began at 2:30 p.m. Khatm-e-khawajagan was held immediately after Zuhr followed by a long du’a (by Shaikh ‘Abd al’Hafiz Makki).
  •  After Fajr on Eid  day, Hadrat treated everyone with dates and water and narrated the hadith Musalsal bi Yaum al-Eid and the hadith Musalsal bi al-Aswadain and then granted everyone permission to narrate the aforementioned hadiths.
  • Besides iftar, guests were offered a variety of curries and other delectables at both meal times. Judging by the different dishes on the mats, one would think the food had been prepared for v.i.p guests. I have attended many wedding banquets, but have never observed anything like the serenity, the honour and respect towards guests, and the sincerity and love of the hosts as on the mats of the leders.
  •  Haji Isma’il and Haji Ibrahim came with wife and children to serve the guests of Hadrat for the whole month. At the iftar, he put butter-filled dates in the mouth of the guests with his own hands and followed up on their needs and presented them with fruits and sweets.
  •  Our elders believed it was necessary for the scholars of the Din to purify their hearts of the filth resulting from evil traits and fill it instead with the remembrance of Allah (azza wajjal). Until this was done they believed that he would be deprived of the blessings of the knowledge of Din, and would not derive the maximum benefit from it. Such a scholar, in their view, was not credible and was wish-washy.
  •  For the longest time, Hadrat’s routine was to leave early in the morning for Gangoh by foot, pray jumu’a behind Hadrat Gangohi, and return at night. Since he had classes the next morning in Deoband, the strength of will that drove him to walk 28 miles in one day exemplifies his fervor and love for Din. When he came in Hadrat’s gathering he sat down quietly amongst the people in the gathering.
  •  I have seen that time in ‘Dar al-Ulum Deoband, when everyone from the dean and principal down to the janitor and guard were all Auliya’ Allah and shaikhs who had attained complete closeness to Allah (azza wajjal). It was ‘Dar al- ‘Ulum by day and khanqa by night; you could hear the dhikr of Allah (azza wajjal) and the sound of recitation of Qur’an coming from their homes in the last part of the night.
  •  The words of Bai’a – لااله الاالله محمدر رسول الله – There is no God but Allah (azza wajjal) and our leader, the Blessed Prophet (Peace be upon him) is the true prophet of Allah (azza wajjal).
  •  We repent from disbelief, polytheism, innovation, from missing salat, from fornication, homosexuality, shaving the beard, lying, stealing, embezzling wealth, falsely accusing others, backbiting, and from every sin, major or minor.
  • Those who have taken bai’a shold remmeber four things:

              Kalima Tayyiba

              salaat and salam

              Istighfar

Third kalima  every morning and night three times.

  •  The most important point is to refrain from all the evils from which one has repented, whether of a general or particular nature. However, if a mistake is made in this regard, one must repent and seek forgiveness at the earlier opportunity.
  •  Special care must be exercised to fulfill others rights. Whether such obligations pertain to physical or monetary matters, they must either be promptly carried out or settled with the person concerned. It has to be taken into consideration that obligations towards people are far more serious than those towards the kind Creator. There will be no salvation on the Day of Judgement without the settlements of others’ rights. One may adopt any suitable method for this.
  •  The personal or physical obligations include abstaining from degradation, insults, and abuses towards the scholars as well as other Muslims. Refraining from swearing, vulgar language, backbiting, and fabricating stories about others all fall under the category of human rights. Monetary rights of people include not holding back or depriving anyone of their rightful share or assets with the help of courts (where one resides) and abstaining from giving and taking bribery, etc.
  •  My Pakistani friends must be very cautious regarding this, as the non-Muslims living in Pakistan are non-Muslims citizens in all respects.
  •  Any questions on legal rulings and fatwas should be addressed to the mufti. A reply card or envelope must be enclosed to receive back a reply.
  •  One should completely abstain from disgracing, defaming, and disrespecting the friends (auliya Allah) of Allah (azza wajjal), for this is extremely injurious to spiritual progress.
  •  This rule strctly apples to Sahaba, Mujtahid imams (four imams of Islamic jurisprudence) and hadith masters…It is not necessary to follow every one of them, as following a person is one thing and disrespecting or insulting him is another. One must always have a great regard and respect for all such personalities. In this regard, my book  al-I’tidal  and Auliya’ Allah ki Ahanat ka Wabal should be carefully studied.
  • Whosoever is a hafiz must make it a habit of reciting a minimum of three parts of Qur’an daily.
  •  Surah Yasin must be read once every morning after Fajr. The reward of this should be sent to all the elders of our line (Chishtiyya). Surat al-Mulk should be recited very night after ‘Isha, and surat al-Kahf every Friday before Jumu’a. When retiring to bed at night one should recite surat al-Nas, al Kafiroon, al-Ikhlas and al-Falaq. Thereafter, one may dry spit (the blessings of these suras) on himself.
  •  The volunatry salah are:

The four rak’a of post-sunrise salat

The eight rak’a of pre-noon salat

The six rak’a after Maghrib

The twelve rak’a of tahajjud

  •  Ta’lim al-Talib and  Ta’lim al-Din by Shaikh Ashraf ‘Ali Thanwi and Akabir ka suluk au Ihsan, Faid-e-Shaikh, Nisbat au Ihsan, and The Reality of Bai’a may be also be studied. it is also good to read the books of other Shaikhs, particularly those of our line and school of thought.
  •  One must inform me of his personal progress monthly. He must mention how many of the recommended points he is acting upon.
  •  It is necessary that the desire and concern for the Hereafter be greater than that for this world, and that death be remembered perpetually. The study of the book Fada’ il-e-Sadaqat will be great aid in this regard.
  •  This is a tradition of our elders, its benefit being the likelihood of acceptance of du’a. Usually, a date or tamarind seed or something similar is used for the khatm-e-khawjagan.
  •  The moethod of twelve tasbih (also called dawazda tasbih) is as follows:

Sit cross-legged while int he state if purity facing the qibla

              Read the saat and salam eleven times and surat al-ikhlas twelve times beginning each time with  bismi Allah, sending the reward                              upon elders of the four lines (Chishtiyya, Suharwardiyya, Naqshbandiyya, Qadiriyya)

Say la Ilaha illa Allah 200 times. Complete the kalima after every ten times (i.e. read the whole kalima)

Say illa Allah 400 times

Say Allahu Allah 600 times

Say Allah 100 times

Twelve tasbih is the Chishtiyya term for this methodology otherwise it actually comes to thirteen tasbih.

  •  Gathering after ‘Asr – listen to biographies of elders. The reason being that I receive an average of thirty to forty visitors (aside from the locals) everyday. I don’t know how to deliver talks or advise people and there is no point wasting time talking about useless tings. I thought it best that they hear the beautiful saying of our elders, those who have been blessed with strict adherence to the sunna. Their sayings are like stringed pearls while their silence opens the door to spiritual progression and reading their biographies increases the Imaan.
  •  You wrote that you have been associated with Hadrat for for 35 years and mentiob you could not gain benefit from him….the problem is that if anyone if anyone takes it seriously he will put himself in harm…I began to cry and responded, “Shaikh, I am sitting in the masjid; I am in itikaaf and I am fasting; do you think I am so bad that I would lie while in this state. I swear by the name of Allah (azza wajjal), that I have written the trust and I am not trying to be humble.” The reality is that I did not benefit because I did not fulfil the conditions that are necessary for one to benefit form his shaikh. Remmeber, this is nothing new. I even wrote that once Shaikh Sher Muhammad asked Shaikh Saharanpuri, “Why are the children of Shaikhs and scholars deprived of the benefit of this path? He replied, “The children of the shaikhs think themselves big sufis once their father pass away, and as for the scholars they become oblivious to everything after gaining knowledge of the Din.”
  •  Once they learn the Din of Allah (azza wajjal), they become complacent and ignorant of yet another pathey they must tread which is crucial to their success.
  •  it is known about Ibn ‘Ali Sina (Avicenna) that because of his knowledge regarding internal actions and their deeper aspects, he thought he had attained perfection of the internal actions, though in fact he was far from this.
  •  Despite their knowledge and greatness, our elders viz. Hadrat Nanautwi, Hadrat Gangohi felt the need for a shaikh. In fact, even in juridical matters they followed the mujtahid imams. Though it is not impossible juristically and rationally to achieve this objective oneself, it is generally difficult in this day and age.
  •  For example, if a man is standing infront of a murid and the shaikh tell the murid to grab both his hands, the murid must grab both his hands. In fact, if the shaikh tells him to grab the third hand the murid must put his thoughts aside and stretch out his hand to grab the third hand.
  •  In one narration Abu Ubaida (May Allah be pleased with him) in Tirmidhi says, I cooked for the prophet (Peace be upon him) – He liked shank so I presented him with shank first. He (Peace be upon him) asked for another and I gave him another. When he asked for another, I said, “Oh blessed Prophet (peace be upon him), a goat only has two shanks.” The Blessed Prophet (Peace be upon Him) replied, “ I swear by the One in whose life is my hands! If you had stayed quiet, the more I asked for, the more that would have come from the pot.”
  •  One can read the thought-provoking discussion between Hadrat Raipuri and Shaikh Manzur Nu’mani which he (Shaikh Manzur Nu’mani) narrates in his book “What is Tasawwuf’? …our Hadrat’s response to such people who want tot ake bai’a with him was “your intention is great but your choice is wrong, so and so amongst the elders are alive, you may take bai’a to whomever you feel closest to among them.”
  •  Hadrat relates: Once, I saw the Blessed Prohpet (Peace be upon him) in my dream and Hadrat Gangohi sitting next to him. He complained to the Blessed Prophet (Peace be upon him), “Zakariyya wished to meet you, Oh blessed Prophet (Peace be upon him) but I wish that he be used some more for the work of Din.” The Blessed Proophet (Peace be upon him) replied, “Yes, he wants to come, but I also wish that he be used some more….A few days later, I remembered my uncle’s (Shaikh Ilyas) story that while in Madina, he received a message from the blessed grave ( rauda), “Go back, you are to be used for some important work.” My uncle said, “For many days, I was extremely anxious that I don’t know how to talk or deliver speeches and am so weak, waht work is to be taken from me.” ….Shortly thereafter, he returned and the work of tabligh began in the Indian subcontinent, which eventually spread throughout the world.
  •  Zakariyya saw in his dream that a man by the name of Wali Allah is being summoned to the Blessed Prophet (Peace be upon him) and is told, “Go tell Zakariyya, you are chosen as the Qutb al-Aqtab.” He should think of himself as Qutb al-Aqtab and inform the people of this also. I thought in the dream that maybe Wali Allah refers to Shah Wali Allah Dehlawi.
  •  Coincidentally, he saw this dream at the end of the 14th century, making his first journey at the dawn of the 15th century to one of the furthest outreaches of the earth [South Africa].
  •  I saw in a dream that people are being informed in the Stanger masjid (Stanger, South Africa) that Hadrat is arriving in one or two days. In the dream I am anxious, thinking how is this going to happen and how are we going to make arrangements on such short notice?
  •  These brothers are asking me to spend Ramadan here, but that will be decided in Rajab. ‘Abd al-Hafiz is my key and the order will come from Madina.
  •  After Rajab, it was decided Hadrat would spend his Ramadan in South Africa…he wrote a letter…you are not allowed to pay for the expense of those accompanying me on this trip. I will have five people with me. The cost of their trip is solely my responsibility….I want to keep myself safe from the accusation that these maulwis come in the name of Ramadan and then collect funds for themselves and their schools. The only exceptions to this rule are Qazi ‘Abd al-Qadir Sahib and Mufti Mahmud because of their personal contact and relations there..
  •  Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) used his whip when anyone cooked more than two dishes. We are considered the elders; we should at least try to adhere to the ways of our predecessors.
  •  …who promise to devote their time and life to the cause of Allah…My uncle that if someone gave him a gift, he said, “I don’t want your girft, I want you.”
  •  Many people  offered to pay for Hadrat’s and his helpers’ tickets and other expenses but Hadrat refused, paying for them and himself from his own account.
  • .. “Nim al- ‘abd, ni’m al- ‘abd” (what a great servant, what a great servant!) He began climbing the skyscraping minaret. AS he was about to reach the top he heard, “Ni ‘m al- ‘abd, Zakariyya” (what a great servant Zakariyya is!).
  •  He requested Hadrat that he come to Reunion, saying, “please come to our place for a short time, either on your way to or when returning from South Africa.” Shaikh Sa’id Angar had long standing relations with Hadrat, had translated amny of Hadrat’s books and is presently the director of the Islamic center in Reunion.
  •  Dr. Zafir al-Din had taken permission to take Hadrat through the gate from which the royal family travelled [al-bab al-malik]. Once they reached the airport, officials stamped the passports and some people were allowed to board with Hadrat.
  •  Durban – The news of Hadrat’s arrival spread throughout the country like wildfire. People longed to see and meet with Hadrat and many people had grown beards in anticipation.
  • Hadrat’s honourable successor, Mufti Mahmud Gangohi had also come to receive Hadrat at the request of the local people to teach them the proprieties and correct way of gaining blessings from the elders.
  •  The sunnah of Fajr was prayed immediately after Fajr adhan followed immediately after by Fajr salat. Shaikh Yusuf Mutala, formerly the principal of ‘Dar al- ‘Ulum in Bolton, England and one of the graduates of Mazahir al- ‘Ulum, Saharanpur was the permanent imam for Fajr salat. He is also one of the beloved and close sucessors of Hadrat Shaikh. Hadrat came to England two years prior on his invitation and intends to visit again for the completion of the six books of hadith, Allah willing.
  •  Shah Wasi Allah Ilahabadi – He is an exemplar of the predecessors in his strength, grasp and depth of the knowledge of Din and in his humility and simplicity. He is also one of the most honoured successors of Hadrat Shaikh. One can rea more about him in his book “The Scholars of Mazahir al- ‘Ulum, Their Literary and Scholastic Contributions” [By Shaikh Muhammad Shahid].
  •   People met with Hadrat after Isha and bottles of water and honey were brought in for blowing into for blessings. So many people came with honey and almonds that the local stores ran out their supply while the number of bottles had also increased…
  •  Opponents who had vehemently opposed Hadrat’s coming, distributing pamphlets and building it into a movement, cam to Hadrat showing regreat for their actions. They admitted their faults and begged Hadrat for forgiveness….Hadrat was just as fast in forgiving them.
  •  He suddenly saw the Blessed Prophet (Peace be upon him) standing and the sun rising from the other side of the horizon. The Blessed Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, “He (Hadrat Shaikh) is the key of truth”…
  •  Sunset and sunrise was clearly visible in Raipur and because of that he synchronised his watch with direct observation of sunrise and sunset. My father [Shaikh Yahya] and uncle [Shaikh Ilyas] both never followed the timetable or watches. They follwed the hadith, when the night comes and the day withdraws.
  •  shah ‘Abd al-Aziz Dehlawi (1746-1824) was a talented jurist, hadith master, exegete. He was also outstanding in verse and prose and was a talented archer, horseman, and calligrapher. In tasawwuf, he was a successor of his father and combined the beautiful qualities of fortitude, kindness, humility and love etc. The shiites made two attempts to poison and kill him after he wrote, Tuhfa Ithna’ ‘Ashariyya a comprehensive treatise of Shiism. It is said that his funeral prayer was prayed fifty-five times.
  •  Once Hadrat started surah Talaq يا ايها النبي اذا طلقتم النساء I quickly corrected him, يا ايها الذين امنوا اذا طلقتم النساء . Hafiz Muhammad Hussain was Hadrat’s main listener. He came every year from Ajrara to spend Ramadan in Saharanpur. My uncle and Shaikh ‘Abd al-Latif were also standing behind Hadrat at the time. They all said in unison, يا ايها النبيز. ….Maulwi Zakariyya, were you sleeping? he asked. I said “No, not at all, Hadrat. But I thought that if all the verbs in the aya are plural it must be Ya ayyuha alladhina Amanu not  Ya Ayyuha al-Nabiyy? Hadrat Saharanpuri replied “you use analogy in the Qu’ran?” I said “Hadrat, its the rule of Philology (nahw) not annalogy.”
  •  “Did you take mt corection or Hafiz Hussain’s? What I meant was that Hafiz Hussain’s salat broke by saying han so if adrat took his correction, I would stand up and announce that everyone’s salat must be repeated. Hadrat understood my point…
  •  It was his routine to recite two parts in tahajjud. At times, he recited more o less depending on how much time he had. When the hadith of nazair cam up during the writing of Badhl al-Majhud, Hadrat said to me, “Note this hadith down, we will recite it in tahajjud today.” This is the example of love for the sunna of the Blessed Prophet (Peace be upon him).
  •  Hadrat replied, “That is true brother, but my heart is more into following the Sunna of the Blessed Prophet (Peace be upon him), though I may not gain the full reward.”
  •  It is said that Majnun even showed his affections for the dogs that lived in the city of his beloved Laila.
  •  His habit before 1335/1916 was that he held his class for Bukhari and Tirmidhi after sunrise until noon. After 1335/1916, he wrote Badhl between 2 a.m. to 12 p.m. throughout the year except in Ramadaan, when he rested for an hour after sunrise. In the summer, he rested first then wrote Badhl between 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. then rested until the adhan of Zuhr.
  • He did not suspend work on badhl during the last ten days, instead whatever books he required were brought to the room near Masjid Kulthumiyya.
  • Hadrat led Tarawih most of his life until he was seventy.
  •  Hadrat overexerted himself and spent so much time reciting Qur’an..he was begged “you need to give yourself some rest”. Hadrat retorted “What work is left to be taken from it that I should give it any rest.” Once he said, “The weakness is affecting my memory and I am scared I may forget my Qur’an. this is why I put so much effort in the Qur’an. Once he said, “It doesn’t matter whether my mind stays or goes but I can never let the Qur’an go.”
  • Despite his old age, enfeebled state, and the violent swaying common to small ships, Hadrat prayed his whole tarawih standing.
  •  When he was over seventy years old, he was performing worship almost all the time, fasting the whole day [when it was extremely hot in India - translator] and praying twenty instead of six rak’as of voluntary salat after Magrib. And the least he recited during this time was two parts of the Qur’an.
  •  Some of his helpers saw him performing ablution at 1 a.m. in the morning. During this time, he prayed tahajjud for 2 1/2 to 3 hours. If anyone of the helpers came by at sehr at 5:30 a.m. or so, they found he was still praying.
  •  Hadrat you can pray your tarawih sitting – Hadrats answer “This si a sign of faintheartedness.” What strength, Allah is Glorified [subhanAllah]! One cannot become a true successor of the one who said, “Should I not be a grateful person,” [The Blessed prophet - Peace be upon him] without such strengths of iman. Every type of worship was increased in the month of Ramadan.
  •  “The first day was hard. It was the first time since I became Hafiz at the age of seven that I opened the Qur’an to recite one and a quarter part. This is because when I became a hafiz, I completed one Qur’an, reciting from it, everyday for six months continuous.”
  •  Shaikh Ya’qub Nanautwi writes in sawanih-e-Qasmi (biography of Shaikh Qasim Nanautwi) that he departed for hajj in Jamada al-Thani 1277 December, 1860 and reached Makka in the last few days of Dhul al Qa’da/ May, 1861.
  •  The eight rules upon which he established Deoband and which he advised his successors to hold on to if they wished for the success of the school.
  •  I know that once he recited 23 parts in one rak’a. If anyone stood behind him, he completed his rak’a and then told the person not to stand behind him. He then stood again, alone this time, and spent the whole night reciting Qur’an.
  •  Maulana Mahmud Hasan Deoband (1851-1920) – Though he wished to teach without salary Shaikh Rashid Gangohi ordered that he take one. But when shaikh Rashid Ahmed passed away, he immediately declined any salary and taught without pay for the rest fo his life. He was caught by the British for his convert activities against them and was finally sent off to the island of Malta.
  •  A city southeast of Makka. These skirmishes occurred between Turkish forces and Arab Bedouins, [during World War] the latter being incited by T.E. Lawrence [aka Lawrence of Arabia] to rise against the Ottoman Empire. The companion, ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) is buried in Taif.
  •  Due to the conditions, it was difficult to get hold of rice and chappatti, and we were forced to pay eight times the price for chappatti. One of the businessmen of Dehli, al-Haj Harun, sent some premium quality rice as a gift for Hadrat, which helped us through. During that time [about two months], we spent some twelve ashrafi because of our situation.
  •  Hadrat’s feet bloated from continuous standing and his devotees became concerned, but Hadrat was ecstatic that he had followed the Sunna of the Blessed Prophet (Peace be upon him), to the extent that his feet would bloat.
  •  [i.e. the congregation became confused because people who were far from the imam thought  he was bowing when he was prostrating]. Hadrat solved this problem by following the second opinion [of the Hanafi madhab] in which he bowed immediately after reciting the aya of prostration.
  •  The number of people was the same as usual and no sweetmeat was distributed [all indications of Hadrat’s simplicity, adherence to the Sunna, and aversion to innovation -translator]. One person requested Hadrat, “Hadrat, I wish to hand out sweet meat” but Hadrat did not allow him and said, “Not today, but you can do it tomorrow if you like.”
  •  In one hadith hadith it says, it is a month in which the sustenance of a believer is increased.
  •  after listening to the recitor in tarawih, Hadrat arrives at home and leads the womenfolk with four rak’as in which he recites his own Qur’an. By the time he finishes its 12 a.m. Then Hadrat wakes again for sehr at 2:30 a.m. and does not sleep after that. Hadrat takes a long time to fall asleep and even when he is able to he does not sleep well. Hadrat has suffered from insomnia for a long time.
  •  The only thing that stops me from doing so is my base self [nafs], which then gets the chance to boast of having stayed awake the whole night.
  •  Hadrat recited bism Allah loudly before surat al-Alaq and recited surat al-Ikhlas only once. When someone asked him about this, he replied, “The custom of reciting surat al-Ilkhlas three times is undesirable in the opinion of some scholars and permissible in the opinion of others. There, to consider it desirable is a grave mistake. And the repetition of surat al-Ikhlas in tarawih is mere custom.
  •  One of the things he mentioned is that the hadith says that Surat al-Ikhlas is one third of the Qur’an, not that reciting it three times gains the reward of the whole Qur’an.
  •  and reciting one third of Qur’an three times does not mean reciting the whole Qur’an. It is like a person reciting ten parts three times; nobody is going to call this recitation of the whole Qur’an.
  •  “What is your routine for sehr?” My father replied, “I stop [eating] until I can’t tell whether I am fasting or not [i.e. I eat to the last minute-translator] [my father was exaggerating otherwise he stopped three to four minutes before dawn -Zakariyya]. Hadrat Thanwi said, “I stop one hour before dawn.”
  •  Some elders have different habits in their iftar in that that they break their fast with dates and Zamzam. My habit is to break fast with whatever is closer at the time of iftar, whether it is a date, Zamzam, warm water guava.”
  •  Nowadays, many huffaz and recitors hold voluntary salat in the nights of Ramadan after tarawih and show no concern for the weak, sick, or people who return from a full day’s work and wish to sleep at night. They suffer due to the insensitivity of such huffaz and recitors. Some masjids even install loudspeakers for this purpose and disturb the sleep of the people in the neighbourhood. All these things look and seem like worship, but are actually acts of sin, as they create hardship for others.
  •  The people in charge of the khanqa were aware that we were Hadrat’s special guests, so they ignored us for a day or two. On the third day, one of the in-charge stood some distance from the room and said loudly, “Talking after ‘Isha is forbidden in the khanqa.” We then realised our mistake and went to sleep immediately after salat.
  •  I read a narration of ‘Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) and A’isha (May Allah be pleased be pleased with her) that Umar said to people who stayed awake and gossiped after ‘Isha, “Go to sleep, maybe you will be able to pray tahajjud.” A similar narration is attributed to A’isha (May Allah be pleased with her).
  •  After Zuhr, he blew on the dozens of bottles placed around the imam’s place and then removed the notes that collected under the prayer rug…
  •  Two types of mats were laid out for iftar, one for Hadrat and those who ate chappati and the second for the guests who ate rice…al his 3 sons ate rice and sat on the other mat.
  •  I did listen to Hadrat’s tarawih two times, the first time in Ramadan of 1363/August 1944, when Hadrat was freed from Ilahabad jail and arrived in the morning at Saharanpur on the 14th of Ramadan/September 1, 1944, and took the train to Deoband immediately after.
  •  “the friends of Allah (azza wajjal) can feel when it is the night of Qadr. Allah (azza wajjal) knows best which day it was on this year.” Hadrat replied, “In my view, it was on the 23rd.” After the moonsighting on the 30th [wednesday], Hadrat left for his residence after Maghrib. On the night of Eid, Hadrat led everyone in the longest thajjud of the holy month. Hadrat led the Eid salat at 9 a.m. the next morning.
  • Hadrat occasionally said [and when I remember his words, it brings tears to my eyes] “You can teach bukhari any time you want, but we are not going to be here forever.”
  •  Maulana Muhammad Yahya Kandhelwi (1871-1917) was Shaikh Zakariyya’s father. He was appointed by his Shaikh, Shaikh Khalil Ahmad Sahanpuri, to teach the books of hadith after he [Sahikh Khalil Ahmad] left to settle down in Hijaz. Throughout his life he taught hadith without pay and recited one Qur’an daily for six months after he memorised Qur’an at the age of seven [approx. 464 Qur’an]. He possessed the rare ability to being able to recite Qur’an while doing any work without stumbling in his recitation.
  •  On the 20th of Ramadan [March 17], he recited form Surat al-Baqara to Surat al-Nas in one rak’a. After completing the second rak’a with surat al-Nas at sehr, he turned around and said to his mother, Ummmi Bi, “I have recited two rak’as as you can complete the rest [18 rak’as]. His mother, Ummi Bi, stood the whole time he recited the Qur’an in one rak’a.
  •  I have written in many places in Fada’il-e-Ramadan that of all the women of our family, my own daughters [May Allah increase them in strength and making effort for the sake of Allah] reicted 15 to 16 part throughout the day and spent the whole night behind various huffaz, despite being occupied the whole day in the kitchen and taking care of the their children.
  •  Once, someone asked Ibn ‘Umar (May Allah be pleased with him), “We have heard that the Blessed Prophet (Peace be upon him) said if the food is brought when the congregation for ‘Isha is about to stand, then one should eat first.” He couldn’t believe the Prophet (Peace be upon him) would say such a thing because if the person went to eat he is going to miss his salat. Ibn ‘Umar responded, “Woe to you, do you think their dinner was like you father’s?” In other words, they didn’t have a variety of dishes and long mats like your father….
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Zakaat and Ramadaan

Compiled by

Yunus Osman

Darul Uloom

Newcastle

  •   Nisaab is the minimum amount on which Zakaat becomes obligatory; a person who owns this minimum amount is considered wealthy in Shar’iah and he is commanded to share part of his wealth with the poor and needy.
  •  This Zakaat is not obligatory on a kaafir, a minor, an insane person and on a slave.
  •  Gold and silver, in their nature are minerals that have the potential of growth. Zakaat is obligatory on these two minerals whether acquired for personnal use or trade if the weight thereof equals the prescribed Nisaab. Apart from these two minerals, Zakaat is not payable on any other kind of jewels, diamonds or precious stones unless acquired for business.
  •  …If interest was acrued at the end of the year, there will be no Zakaat on the interest, but dividends, profits and other forms of Halaal benefits derived from the investments will be added up to the capital investment and Zakaat will be calculated on the total amount.
  •  One is liable to pay Zakaat on monies loaned to others provided these loans were guaranteed and secured and likewise goods given on credit. But in the case of insecured loans or credits, zakaat will be paid on monies recovered and Zakaat will be calculated for all the years since it was loaned.
  •  The ruling price of shares and the income derived therefrom are subject to the payment of Zakaat on condition that the investment is Islamically permissible and that the said company deals with investments other than immovable properties.
  •  Zakaat will be payable on the income and not the value of the shares if the company deals with land and property.
  •  Garimeen (Debtors) – Who does not own a nisaab which is more than his debts, is entitled to Zakaat.
  •  The amount of Zakaat given to any one person should not be less than that which could satisfy his needs for at least a day.
  •  A person owning fixed property of properties on the income of which he maintains his family, or farm lands from which he receives no income, and if his total income hardly suffices for the maintenance of his family and he does not have any wealth left over to reach the minimum Nisaab limit, then he is religiously defined as poor and deserving of receiving Zakaat.
  •  A person in regular employment could also come under this definition if his income is insufficient to maintain his family.
  •  Fitrah is compulsory on every Muslim who has sufficient from himself and his family or dependants for the of Eid. He should discharge his Fitrah in respect of himself and all those who are dependant upon him such as his wife, his children and Muslim servants.
  •  According to Imam Abu Hanifah, fitrah may be given even before Ramadan.
  • It is clear, however, from the tradition narrated by Ibn Abbas that Fitrah must be discharged before the Eid Salah for it to be valid and accepted.
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1st Ethical Charitable Trust’s Guide to 

Understanding & Calculating Zakah

Edition VII

  •  Muslims may also be unaware of valuable tax concessions available on donations made to UK registered charities. These concessions can enhance the value of donations by at least 25% for a basic rate taxpayer and even more for a higher rate taxpayer, and are easily claimable in most cases by signing a simple declaration.
  •  This guide is according to the Hanafi school of thought.
  •  The Nisaab is 87.48 grams of gold and 612.36 grams of silver. If however the person has a mixture of assets, then the nisaab level for silver should be used.
  •  Zaynab is a poor widow and owns hardly any Zakatable assets hence is not liable to pay Zakah. She does, however own her own house, where, in addition to owning basic necessity items, she also owns a second sofa set, as well as a TV. The value of these non-essential personal use items is greater than the Nisaab level. Consequently, Zaynub cannot receive Zakah.
  •  There are some people whose wealth is below the Nisaab amount, hence they do not need to pay Zakah. Their wealth however is more than the minimum required to be able to receive Zakah. These people are therefore in a position where Zakah does not affect them personally, either in having to pay Zakah or entitlement to receive Zakah. Those who with to pay Zakah need to be careful in only given Zakah monies to those people entitled to Zakah. There are many British Muslims who have traditionally paid Zakah to friends or extended family members living in the Asian sub-continent without thoroughly checking if they are poor enough to receive Zakah.
  •  All assets owned for personal use and used to meet basic living expenses are completely  exempt from Zakah EXCEPT for cash and items made from gold and silver.
  •  All assets purchased for the explicit purpose of resale are liable for Zakah.
  •   If one owns personal use items made from a mixture of metals, these are only liable to Zakah if more than half the metal is gold or silver. Consequently, gold plated jewellery is not liable for Zakah as the gold is invariably less than half the total content of the metal use.
  •  If the asset is purchased with the express intent to resell at a profit, then that asset effectively represents ‘stock in trade’ and therefore the entire value is subject to Zakah.
  •  If the asset is purchased with the intention of retaining ownership, e.g. investment property, the asset is not subject to Zakah. Any profit form rental income received is fully subject to Zakah.
  •  If there is no clear intention behind the purchase, then no Zakah is payable on the value of the asset. Any profit received from rent is still liable to Zakah.
  •  Please not Zakah is not payable on HARAAM income.
  •  Finished goods, work in progress and raw materials are subject to Zakah, as they are purchased with the express intention for resale.
  •  If shares are purchased as an investment to generate dividends, then as Zakah is only due on the zakatable assets of the firm (e.g. raw material and finished goods), a realistic attempt must be made to calculate the percentage of the shareholding relating to Zakatable assets.
  •  Aisha initially purchased the house intending to rent, not to resell immediately, the value of the house is therefore not a Zakatable asset, though any rental income received would be. Aisha subsequently decides to sell her property but has not yet concluded a sale. During this period of seeking a buyer, her Zakah anniversary comes around. Given Aisha initially purchased the house intending to rent, not to resell immediately, the value of the house will still not be Zakatable at this anniversary. Zakah will only be payable on any proceeds of the subsequent sale, which are held as Zakatable assets on a subsequent Zakah anniversary.
  •  A persons wealth may fluctuate above and below the level of Nisaab during the year…then Zakah is only due if wealth is in excess of the Nisaab at the end of the Zakah year.
  •  Zakah should be distributed as soon as possible. At the very latest Zakah should be distributed one year after the calculation date.
  •  The value of the assets used in the Zakah calculation should be the market value of the assets on your Zakatable date.
  •  Scholars therefore advise against giving Zakah to general causes such as hospitals. This is because these funds are not directly owned by the recipient.
  •  Zakah can be paid in either cash or in kind as long as the value of the goods is equal to the cash amount and the recipient has agreed to accept the good in kind.
  •  Medial Debts (those arising from sale of personal items) are liable to Zakah only twelve months after being received.
  •  Strong Debts need adding to Zakatable assets even before they are received, whereas weak debts need adding to Zakatable assets only after they are received.
  •  Many contemporary scholars have ruled only twelve months worth of Muajjal debt repayment should be deducted from Zakatable assets, not the entire amount. If the debt is interest based, then only the portion of the principle due is deductible.
  •  Outstanding basic living expenses – expenses incurred which have not yet been paid for (e.g. utility bill) can also be deducted for the Zakah period in question.
  •  Goods purchased on credit – if you have taken receipt of goods but not yet paid for them, and fully intend to pay the debt, then the value of the entire debt can be deducted against assets in arriving at a net assets figure for Zakah purposes.
  •  Unpaid dowry to one’s wife – Assuming one intends to pay this during the year then it too can be deducted.
  •  Commercial loans – the entire loan cannot be deducted against assets, only the portion which has been used to finance Zakatable assets.
  •  Contemporary Shari’ah scholars say it is permissible to deduct twelve months of instalments from the value of your Zakatable assets. With reagards to Ijaraj and Diminishing Musharakah schemes, it is not permissible to deduct any future instalments from the value of your Zakatable assets. On the contrary, Zakah may need to be paid on the portion of monthly instalments paid into a separate bank account, to be used to purchase all or part of the property in the future. Scholars have opined that if the bank account payments can be accessed by the tenant personally then Zakah must be paid.
  •  Pension contributions made by an individual prior to retirement may not be liable to Zakah if the inividual has no say over how the money is invested (as is the case with most final salary schemes). If the person has a choice over how to invest the money (as in the case with all money purchase and personal pension schemes) then Zakah is payable.
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How To Calculate Your Zakaat

by

MS Omar

  •  In this regard, the clear intention to resell the asset on part of the buyer must exist at the time of purchase in order to give the asset the character of stock in trade.
  •  If the immovable property was purchased as an investment and not to resell, then the value of the asset is exempt from Zakaah. A subsequent change of intention in the case where the owner, who had originally purchased the immovable property for investment, to hold as capital now decided or intends to sell it for profit will not alter the character of the asset for Zakaah purposes and the asset remains exempt from Zakaah.
  •  Where one owns gold and silver, together with the cash or stock in trade, Zakaah will be payable if the aggregate value of all these assets exceeds the value of 613,34 grams of silver.
  •  Shares in public – according to the preferable view, such shares are really stock in trade in the hands of the owner thereof-who made trade in shares on the stock exchange as he pleases. Zakaah is therefore payable on the market value.
  •  However if it is possible to ascertain that proportion of the paid up capital of a company which represents fixed assets which are not subject to Zakaah, Such as machinery, building etc., then it is permissible to deduct that proportion from the market value of a share. For example, if 10% of the paid up capital represents fixed assets and the market value of a share is R100.00, then Zakaah is payable on R80.00 only. But, if that proportion is unknown, one should pay Zakaah on the total market value of the shares.
  • …The stock should be valued for the purpose of Zakaah in a manner that reflects the price which can be realised if the whole stock is sold in bulk in a single transaction at the end of the relevant Zakaah year. It must be noted that, in the case of the manufacturer of goods, the stock would comprise both raw material (eg fabric) and the finished goods.
  •  Liabilities incurred in aquiring assets which are exempt from Zakaah; for example mortgage bonds on immovable property; or instalments due under suspensive sale agreements in respect of plant and machinery, and fittings and fixtures. The amounts of such liabilities are, in the light of modern business conditions, not deductible.
  •  Liabilities incurred in acquiring assets which are subject to Zakaah; for example, trade creditors (suppliers of the stock in trade), bank overdraft and shippers loans to fund the purchase of stocks. Such liabilities should be deducted from the total value of the assets subject to Zakaah in order to arrive at the net amount on which Zakaah is payable.
  •  Zakaah must be paid, upon receipt of the indemnity or the insured amount, on the total amount of the premiums paid over the period of insurance (in other words, Zakaah is paid for the preceeding years as well). The surplus (difference between amount of indemnity and premiums paid) must be given to poor and needy persons who qualify to receive Zakaah. It is not allowed in Shariah to use that surplus for personal benefit.
  •  The amount of income tax which is due and payable at the end of the Zakaah year but which has not been deducted, may be deducted from the total value of Zakaatable assets at the time. This is the writer’s personal view.
  •  Family trusts commonly created for purposes of avoiding or minimising tax.
  •  ..Zakaah on the total amount of income standing to credit only at the time he actually receives such amount. In other words, he must pay Zakaah on the accumulated income for the preceeding years upon receipt thereof.
  •  If the employee’s contribution each month is deducted at the source under a compulsory pension or provident fund, the Zakaah is only payable upon receipt of the relevant lump sum in the year of receipt, and no Zakaah is payable for the preceeding years. In the case however of voluntry pension or provident fund, Zakaah is payable on the lump sum not only for the year of receipt but also for preceeding years. In this case, it may be simpler to pay the Zakaah each year on the cumulative value of contributions.
  •  …Where a person has nisaab of a particular class of of Zakaatable property and during the course of the Zakaah year acquires property of the same class for any source whatsoever, then the property so acquired is added to the existing Zakaatable property of the same class and Zakaah is payable on the whole, or the remainder thereof, at the end of the Zakaah year without calculating a separate Zakaah year for each such separate acquisition. For example, a person has cash of R10,000.00 and during the course of the Zakaah year receives a further sum of R5,000.00 by way of a gift. He must pay Zakaah on the sum of R15,000.00 at the end of the Zakaah year and a new year would not be calculated in respect of the subsequent acquisitions of the R5,000.00.
  •  Following assets exempt from Zakaah – Deposits (Rental, electricity, etc.), stamp collection (not for re-sale), pledge of moveables (e.g. gold coins), paintings (not for re-sale), and goods purchased but not delivered exempt.
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About Us

Deen Class is an educational organisation which runs ongoing classes and courses in the Durban area, South Africa. We currently run courses in Fiqh, Tafseer and Arabic, as well as other evening courses on miscellaneus topics.

Our classes are mostly for adults and teens and are very interactive and are set in a relaxed environment. All classes cater for males and females, with separation. All tutors are qualified in their specific fields, who have either studied abroad, or had extensive experience in the subject which they teach.

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